Access to health services and the quality of care administered at all levels of health care have been considered as the central determinants of health outcomes . Recently, in public health research, the focus is shifting to the role of socio-economic indicators in the promotion of health . There have been a lot of debates on the effects of socio economic factors on health outcomes. Mckeown  and Fogel  for instance submitted that improvements in longevity experienced in the 19th century in the Western world could be attributed more to improvement in nutrition consequent on higher income than to medical advances or public health campaigns. Others [5–9] have argued that these improvements were more on public health efforts (namely, sanitation, vaccination, and vector control) and advances in health technology such as discovery of more potent antibiotics than on income or income growth.
Szreter in a critique of McKeown's work posited that the return to generally declining mortality in the last third of the nineteenth century reflects the chronology of the most significant improvements in public health and urban sanitation rather than economic growth, rising living standards, and improved nutrition . According to Szreter, that era witnessed the establishment of the Local Government Board; the passing of a series of Public Health Acts; and the implementation of a wide range of preventive measures that included supply of safe water, enforcement of environmental sanitation, and prevention of overcrowding . However persuasive and academically sound Szreter's argument is, it leaves open the question of an indirect relationship between sanitary measures and improved nutritional efficiency . It equally leaves open the question of a possible relationship between economic growth and the execution of preventive public health services.
Case  in a more recent work however observed that income exerts a causal effect on health status through several channels, among which she named improved nutritional status, better sanitation, improved living standards, reduction of psychological stress and reduced susceptibility to infections. She stated further that higher income might allow people to spend more time and money seeking out health services for self and household members. The study by Filmer, et al  further strengthens the case for quantifying the causal impact of income on health outcomes.
Other indicators of social economic status of a people are: educational attainment, nature of occupation, family background, and nature of property ownership and wealth. According to Hobbs and Blanks, occupation plays a major role in shaping the life style of individuals . They asserted that there are correlations to be made between one's occupation and one's education, recreational and leisure-time activities, political affiliation and quality of basic social services. Indeed formal education has become a means to elevate one's social status and economic welfare. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behavior is important for public health policy. This has become imperative because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Whatever the focus, there is a need to explore the role of socio economic factors on health outcomes particularly in a developing nation like Nigeria facing gross economic crises.
It is significant to note that most studies on the link of socio economic factors and health outcomes in the developing nations have focused on infant mortality . In the United Nations' report for instance, mortality rate amongst the under fives in Nigeria was put at 178 per 1000 . A major cause of this mortality is febrile conditions, which are not only preventable but also curable provided treatments are sought promptly and from appropriate centers. The term febrile condition refers to a state of being feverish which is usually associated with malaria, measles, neonatal tetanus, pneumonia, whooping cough etc [15, 16]. Therefore, a case is being made for quantifying the causal impact that socio-economic indicators will have on health outcomes and health seeking behavior. Consequently, this paper analyses the effect of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions among their under-five children.