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Table 2 Multivariable associations between child characteristics, work status and labor

From: Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

   Any work1 <21 hrs2 22-27 hrs2 Labor2
Gender Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Female 1.95** 1.93** 1.94* 2.16**
   [1.46 - 2.61] [1.42 - 2.61] [1.17 - 3.21] [1.43 - 3.27]
Relationship Biological child 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Other 1.11 1.08 1.38 1.07
   [0.83 - 1.48] [0.79 - 1.47] [0.83 - 2.32] [0.71 - 1.61]
School enrollment Enrolled 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Not enrolled 2.14* 1.72 1.66 5.04**
   [1.18 - 3.90] [0.93 - 3.16] [0.51 - 5.41] [2.35 - 10.84]
Caregiver reported Very good or good 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
health of the child   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Fair 0.85 0.9 0.93 0.64
   [0.57 - 1.27] [0.59 - 1.36] [0.46 - 1.89] [0.37 - 1.10]
  Poor or very poor 0.42** 0.38** 0.53 0.53
   [0.24 - 0.76] [0.20 - 0.70] [0.19 - 1.49] [0.25 - 1.12]
Age 6-7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  8-10 3.45** 3.08** 4.45** 5.50**
   [2.44 - 4.87] [2.15 - 4.40] [2.18 - 9.11] [3.10 - 9.77]
  11-12 5.85** 4.85** 10.64** 9.82**
   [3.80 - 9.02] [3.07 - 7.64] [4.86 - 23.27] [5.14 - 18.76]
Location Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Rural 2.38** 2.12** 2.96** 2.94**
   [1.65 - 3.45] [1.46 - 3.09] [1.70 - 5.15] [1.84 - 4.69]
  1. *, **, and *** denote significance at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels, respectively
  2. 1 relative to no work; estimates from a logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects
  3. 2 relative to no work; estimates from a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects