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Table 3 Multivariable associations between caregiver characteristics, child work status and child labor

From: Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

   Any work1 <21 hrs2 22-27 hrs2 Labor2
Caregiver gender Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Female 1.02 0.91 1.27 1.48
   [0.64 - 1.62] [0.55 - 1.48] [0.53 - 3.04] [0.68 - 3.21]
Caregiver age 18-35 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  36-55 0.74 0.72 0.65 0.82
   [0.51 - 1.07] [0.49 - 1.06] [0.34 - 1.25] [0.46 - 1.46]
  56+ 0.69 0.65 0.62 0.8
   [0.39 - 1.22] [0.36 - 1.20] [0.25 - 1.52] [0.35 - 1.82]
Marital status Married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Widowed 0.74 0.85 0.65 0.46**
   [0.50 - 1.11] [0.56 - 1.30] [0.32 - 1.32] [0.26 - 0.81]
  Other 0.76 0.87 0.62 0.54
   [0.43 - 1.35] [0.48 - 1.59] [0.19 - 2.01] [0.21 - 1.38]
Caregiver health Very good or good 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Fair 1.44 1.47 1.85 1.16
   [0.96 - 2.17] [0.96 - 2.25] [0.89 - 3.84] [0.65 - 2.08]
  Poor or very poor 0.67 0.66 0.68 0.71
   [0.41 - 1.11] [0.40 - 1.08] [0.28 - 1.67] [0.34 - 1.45]
Caregiver education Less than 7 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  7 years or more 1.24 1.19 1.21 1.49
   [0.85 - 1.81] [0.81 - 1.74] [0.63 - 2.33] [0.83 - 2.70]
Earning an income Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  No 1.05 0.87 1.41 2.06*
   [0.70 - 1.60] [0.56 - 1.37] [0.64 - 3.09] [1.14 - 3.75]
Wealth index   0.54** 0.58** 0.61 0.34**
   [0.39 - 0.74] [0.43 - 0.80] [0.37 - 1.02] [0.22 - 0.55]
# of children caring for 1.04 1.04 1.06 0.95
   [0.94 - 1.14] [0.95 - 1.15] [0.91 - 1.24] [0.82 - 1.09]
Location Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Rural 2.79** 2.44** 3.27** 3.60**
   [1.83 - 4.25] [1.60 - 3.73] [1.71 - 6.26] [2.02 - 6.41]
  1. *, **, and *** denote significance at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels, respectively
  2. 1 relative to no work; estimates from a logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects
  3. 2 relative to no work; estimates from a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects