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Table 1 Key Points of Global Health Anti-Corruption Framework

From: Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

Establishing International Consensus on “Global Health Corruption” Suggested definition: “misappropriation of authority, resources, trust or power for private or institutional gain that has adverse effects on regional, local, or international health systems and/or that negatively impacts individual patient and/or population health outcomes.” Establishes an internationally recognized definition and draws needed attention to the unique risks of health-related corruption International community and input from all relevant stakeholders (e.g. public health agencies, law enforcement, regulators, judicial system, civil society, global health systems, donors)
WHO-UNODC Global Health Corruption Protocol Under UNCAC Development of an international binding treaty protocol on global health corruption and establishing the necessary global health governance framework Implements definition under an existing international treaty and establishes infrastructure for global corruption framework Member states of WHO and UNODC
Global Health Anti-Corruption Governance Framework Model Acts System: Development of Model Acts system of core anti-corruption definitions and requirements for individual states to implement with certain flexibilities Development of a model system for states to follow in developing their own domestic systems and aids in harmonization Signatories to Protocol in consultation with domestic stakeholders
  Domestic and Regional Corruption Tools: Assessment of inclusion of existing domestic anti-corruption tools that have had success Examines existing enforcement tools that have curbed domestic level health corruption Governance structure of protocol (e.g. conference of state parties, other developed governing body)
  Useful International Tools and Systems: Assessment and active inclusion of existing methods, tools and good practices addressing corruption developed by international organizations Assesses existing tools developed by international organizations aimed at addressing global health system corruption Governance structure of protocol (e.g. conference of state parties, other developed governing body)
  Governance System: Development and implementation of dynamic global health governance structure to address global health corruption flexible enough to deal with diverse forms of corruption in different settings Governance system flexible enough to be tailored to domestic and global health system needs. Should be comprehensive including components of protocol implementation, financing, incorporation of health system strengthening, and establishment/recommendation of various anti-corruption interventions. All stakeholders