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Table 1 Initial version of the COMMVAC interventions taxonomy

From: “Communicate to vaccinate”: the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination

Purpose Intervention types
Inform or Educate  
Strategies to enable consumers to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination to their health and the health of their family or community. Interventions may be delivered in many formats and by many methods, including face to face interaction, mail, phone, device or tool, audio visual presentation or performance, printed materials, websites, multi-media campaigns, or community events. Interventions to inform or educate may be directed at individuals, groups, or communities and, communities, or providers and may include information about vaccine-preventable diseases; risks and benefits of vaccines; where, how, and when to access vaccine services; and who should receive vaccination. • Face to face interactions
• Postcards, letters or email
• Phone calls or SMS
• Device or tool
• Audio visual/performance
• Printed material
• Web-based
• Media campaign
• Community event
• General
Remind or Recall  
Strategies to remind consumers or providers of required, recommended, or scheduled vaccination services and to recall those who are overdue for vaccination. Interventions may be delivered in face to face interactions at clinics or in a person’s home, by mail, phone, or with a device or tool. They may include personalised information related to a specific upcoming or missed appointment, or may be more focused on promoting general awareness of available vaccines. Contact may be made once or multiple times.  
• Face to face interactions
• Postcards, letters or email
• Phone calls or SMS
• Device or tool
• General
Teach Skills  
Strategies to provide individuals with the ability to operationalise knowledge through the adoption of practicable skills. Skills may be taught to consumers or those engaged in the delivery of health services. People may be taught general parenting skills, how to share information effectively amongst their peers, or how to deliver information or education to others in both formal and informal settings. • Parenting skills programmes
• Peer to peer information sharing
• Training in how to communicate/provide education to others
• General
Strategies to provide assistance or advice for consumers outside the traditional consultation environment. Interventions include face to face interactions which may take place at an individual’s home or in a group session, telephone support calls or access to a telephone helpline, and referrals to put people in touch with community or other healthcare services.  
• Face to face interactions
• Phone contact
• Web-based
Minimise risks or harms  
Strategies to help consumers recognise, record or respond to personal risks associated with vaccination, such as adverse events. • Parent recording or reporting of adverse events
Increase access to or likelihood of contact with healthcare/vaccination services  
Strategies to assist individuals in overcoming challenges to reaching and utilising health services. Interventions may address barriers to access including but not limited to time, transportation, money, or language. Interventions may include greater availability of care through mobile clinics or extended clinic hours; providing vaccinations at unrelated healthcare visits; outreach escorts to help bring children to clinics or assist in making appointments; incentives or disincentives; multi-lingual interpreters; or the provision of free or reduced-cost vaccines.  
• Mobile clinic
• Opportunistic vaccination
• More convenient care
• Transportation assistance
• Incentives or disincentives
• Interpreters
• Free vaccines
To involve the community in planning, programme delivery, research, advocacy or governance  
Strategies to engage the members of a community in the execution or implementation of health and vaccination services; or to generate awareness and understanding and strengthen relationships and communication within a community in relation to vaccine delivery and education. Interventions may be simple, such as holding community focus groups for priority-setting, or complex, such as building relationships between different sectors and organisations within a community.  
• Community coalition
• Programme delivery
• Community input
• Partnership building