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Table 3 Determinants of antenatal care service utilization

From: Barriers to using skilled birth attendants’ services in mid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Antenatal care utilization (< 4 times and ≥ 4 times)
  Bivariate OR (95% CI) Multivariate OR (95% CI)
Education   
Illiterate 1 1
Informal education 1.54 (1.22–1.95)* 1.39 (1.10-1.77)*
Primary school 1.81 (1.34–2.45)* 1.38 (1.01-1.90)*
Secondary school 2.85 (2.12–3.78)* 1.94 (1.43-2.63)*
Intermediate and above 3.49 (2.35–5.17)* 2.41 (1.55-3.75)*
Occupation   
Agriculture 1 1
Service 1.63 (0.99-2.68) 1.05 (0.61-1.80)
Business 1.95 (0.92-4.15) 1.34 (0.61-2.93)
Wage laborer 1.33 (0.63-2.83) 1.36 (0.63-2.94)
Housewife 1.69 (1.31-2.17)* 1.44 (1.10-1.89)*
Other 1.09 (0.58-2.07) 0.73 (0.37-1.42)
Wealth quintile   
Lowest 1 1
Second 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 1.01 (0.76-1.33)
Middle 0.95 (0.71–1.26) 0.95 (0.70-1.28)
Fourth 1.44 (1.10–1.90)* 1.25 (0.93-1.67)
Highest 1.72 (1.30–2.27)* 1.38 (1.02-1.86)*
Knowledge of danger signs
No 1 1
Yes 1.99 (1.67–2.38)* 1.71 (1.41-2.07)*
Distance to health facility
> 30 min 1 1
≤ 30 min 1.69 (1.39-2.05)* 1.44 (1.18-1.77)*
  1. CI confidence interval.
  2. *p < 0.05.
  3. Results are shown for the association between completed antenatal care visits (≥ 4 visits) and various independent variables in mid- and far-western Nepal (n = 2,190). Of the total study population (n = 2,481), only 2,190 women had completed at least one antenatal checkup during the preceding 12 months.