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Table 1 Characteristics of households caring for orphaned and separated children participating in the OSCAR Health and Well-Being Study (N = 300)

From: The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without

Characteristics CT N = 101 DSL N = 110 SSL N = 89 p-value
  n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Sources of material support
Family 50 (49.5) 28 (25.5) 38 (42.7) 0.010
Government 102 (100) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) <0.001
Religious institutions 4 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (3.4) xx
Individual sponsors/ well wishers 15 (14.9) 11 (10.0) 22 (24.7) 0.018
Formal employment 2 (2.0) 2 (1.8) 1 (1.1) 0.889
Farming 50 (48.5) 57 (51.8) 52 (58.4) 0.384
Brew/sell alcohol 1 (1.0) 5 (4.6) 4 (4.5) 0.273
Sell vegetables 23 (22.8) 17 (15.5) 18 (20.2) 0.392
Casual labour 17 (16.8) 31 (28.2) 32 (36.0) 0.011
No external support 6 (5.9) 73 (66.4) 29 (32.6) <0.001
Shelter type
Temporary 47 (46.5) 46 (41.8) 37 (41.6) 0.785
Semi-permanent 49 (48.5) 58 (52.7) 49 (55.1)
Permanent 3 (3.0) 6 (5.5) 2 (2.3)
Missing 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1)
Electricity in home
In whole building 7 (6.9) 13 (11.8) 2 (2.3) 0.045
In some rooms 2 (2.0) 1 (0.9) 3 (3.4)
None 89 (88.1) 96 (87.3) 83 (93.3)
Missing 3 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1)
Source of water
Stream/river 12 (11.9) 8 (7.3) 16 (18.0) 0.069
Well/borehole 74 (73.3) 88 (80.0) 58 (65.2) 0.063
Public tap 13 (12.9) 20 (18.2) 17 (19.1) 0.447
Water piped into home 8 (7.9) 9 (8.2) 4 (4.5) 0.542
Toilet facilities
Pit latrine 92 (91.1) 104 (96.4) 83 (93.3) 0.2125
Indoor flush toilet 0 (0.0) 2 (1.8) 1 (1.1)
Pit latrine/ Indoor flush toilet 0 (0.0) 2 (1.8) 0 (0.0)
No toilet facilities 9 (8.9) 4 (3.6) 5 (5.6)
Amount of land owned
None 31(30.7) 38 (34.6) 11 (12.4) 0.005
Up to 1 acre 32 (31.7) 33 (30.0) 29 (32.6)
>1 acre 28 (27.7) 35 (31.8) 38 (42.7)
Missing 10 (9.9) 4 (3.6) 11 (12.4)
Average number of meals per day
Mean (standard deviation) 2.74 (0.44) 2.80 (0.40) 2.67 (0.49) 0.181
Essential material possessions
Children having ≥ 1 pair of shoes 86 (85.2) 87 (80.6) 76 (85.4) 0.573
Children having ≥ 2 pairs of clothes 77 (76.2) 104 (94.6) 78 (87.6) 0.001
Children having ≥ 1 blanket 22 (22.2) 25 (23.2) 22 (25.0) 0.902
Proportion of household income spent on food
Expressed as percent 69% 67% 83% 0.183
Household location
Rural 49 (48.5) 61 (55.5) 52 (58.4) 0.364
Peri-urban 52 (51.5) 49 (44.6) 37 (41.6)  
  1. CT: Cash Transfer, SSL: Same sub-Location (as that receiving the Cash Transfer), DSL: Different sub-Location (from that receiving the Cash Transfer).