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Table 6 Odds ratios for poor levels of metabolic control by place of last outpatient visit.

From: Metabolic control in a nationally representative diabetic elderly sample in Costa Rica: patients at community health centers vs. patients at other health care settings

Metabolic control indicators (n) Community health centers Public clinic Public hospital Private clinical setting
HbA1C ≥ 7% 460 1.00 0.93   0.84   1.40  
-People with insulin 134 1.00 0.32 * 0.34 * 0.25  
-People with oral medication 321 1.00 0.75   1.14   2.03  
SBP ≥ 130 mg/dlb 479 1.00 0.82   1.28   1.22  
-People with antihypertensive medication 321 1.00 0.51   0.80   0.43  
DBP ≥ 80 mg/dlb 479 1.00 1.21   1.11   1.65  
-People with antihypertensive medication 321 1.00 0.83   1.02   1.47  
SBP ≥ 130 & DBP ≥ 80 mmHgb 479 1.00 1.34   1.33   1.30  
-People with antihypertensive medication 321 1.00 0.86   1.01   1.02  
Triglycerides≥ 150 mg/dl 452 1.00 0.51 ** 0.63   0.40 **
-People with statin medication 99 1.00 0.38   0.32   0.17 *
LDL ≥ 100 mg/dl 423 1.00 0.72   0.40 ** 0.27 ***
-People with statin medication 76 1.00 0.15   0.20   0.01 ***
HDL ≤ 40 mg/dl 472 1.00 1.63   1.17   0.85  
Without aspirin intake 471 1.00 1.05   0.80   1.10  
Without influenza vaccine last year 478 1.00 1.40   1.17   1.62  
Without physician examination at least once a year 478 1.00 0.95   1.09   7.10 **
  1. Notes: a/Odds ratios computed from logistic regressions that control for sex, age, income, schooling, region of residence, health insurance, history of stroke, history of heart attack, smoking, obesity, and years since diagnosis of DM. The odds ratios for biomarkers are also controlled for estimated caloric intake. Analyses exclude interviewees who had their last outpatient visit at home, because sample size for that category is too small.
  2. b/Arithmetic mean of two measurements