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Table 2 Characteristics of qualitative studies in adults and mixed populations

From: Barriers to the effective treatment and prevention of malaria in Africa: A systematic review of qualitative studies

Name Year Country Setting Population Primary methods (n) Disease terminology
Adult focus
Agyepong 1992 Ghana Rural Men and women over 20 years old 6 focus groups Asra, asraku
Stevens 1995 Tanzania Urban, peri-urban Adults, community leaders 8 focus groups (94),
72 focused discussions (175)
Rashed 1999 Benin Rural Parents, community elders, non-western healers, health care providers 23 focus groups (252), 8 semi-structured interviews Ouevozon
Nyamongo 2002 Kenya Rural Adults aged 18 to 80 Interviews (35) -
Mixed focus
Helitzer-Allen 1993 Malawi Rural Mothers, pregnant women, husbands, health workers, community leaders 160 in-depth interviews
24 focus groups††
Agyepong 1994 Ghana Rural and urban Caregivers of children under 5 years Interviews (471) Asra, asraku
Kengeya-Kayondo 1994 Uganda Rural Women, mothers, female caregivers 5 focus groups (42), 395 semi-structured interviews, 64
key informant interviews
Winch 1996 Tanzania Rural Group meetings with local government officials, religious leaders, teachers, and health workers, 40 unstructured interviews and focus groups, pile sorting with 8 respondents Homa, homa kali, homa ya kuchemka, homa ya malaria, degedege
Muela 1998 Tanzania Semi-rural Adult malaria patients, caretakers of children under 5, mothers, villagers, traditional healers 6 focus groups, 103 interviews Malaria, homa, homa ya malaria, degedege
Munguti 1998 Kenya Rural Heads of households reporting a case of malaria within the previous 2 weeks Structured interviews (463) -
Mixed focus (cont'd)
Oberlander 2000 Tanzania Rural village - Participant observation, informal group discussion, ethnographic interviews Degedege, mchango, kibwengo, malaria
Brieger 2001 Nigeria Urban Adults, child caregivers 36 focus groups, 154 interviews Iba, malaria, fever, malaria fever
Nuwaha 2002 Uganda Rural, partly-urban Men, women, heads of households 4 focus groups omushwija, omussuja
Okrah 2002 Burkina Faso Rural, partly-urban Caregivers of children under 5, adult community members 10 focus groups, 9 key informant interviews Soumaya
Adongo 2005 Ghana Rural Women, men, couples, mothers, healers, bednet vendors 8 focus groups, 98 interviews Pua, feber, nienga, zumzuri
Eriksen 2005 Tanzania Rural and urban Mothers, fathers, health workers 12 focus groups -
Onwujekwe 2005 Nigeria Rural Men, women, youths 9 focus groups iba
Deressa 2007 Ethiopia Rural Mothers of children under 5
Men with at least one child
3 Focus groups
4 Focus groups
Essé 2008 Côte d'Ivoire Rural School children aged 10-14
Health practitioners, health facility staff, local healers, religious leaders
6 Focus groups
15 Key informant interviews
Djèkouadjo, djékadjo, ewuego, anumą
Idowu 2008 Nigeria Rural Adults Focus groups Iba otutu
  1. interview target groups -- pregnant women, women who had recently given birth, chiefs and village headmen, husbands of pregnant women, traditional birth attendants, health worker, traditional advisors, and traditional healers
  2. ††focus group target groups -- pregnant women, women who had recently given birth, and husbands of pregnant women