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Table 4 Exposure variables of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations

From: Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences

Exposure Variables Arrest or detention Torture, and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment Participation in a combat and 'Cross-Fire' Extrajudicial execution or murder by law enforcement agency
   No Yes OR (95% CI) P value No Yes OR (95% CI) P value No Yes OR (95% CI) P value No Yes OR (95% CI) P value
Involved in political party Not involved 614 194 1 - 597 211 1 - 800 8 1 - 786 22 1 -
  Awami League 61 67 3.44 (2.25-5.26) < 0.001 67 61 2.54 (1.15-5.61) < 0.05 107 21 19.53 (4.71-80.91) < 0.001 102 26 9.22(2.60-32.64) < 0.001
  Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) 81 46 1.85 (0.92-3.71) 0.083 65 62 2.92 (1.41-6.03) < 0.005 103 24 21.62 (4.21-111.02) < 0.001 100 27 9.15 (2.02-41.54) < 0.005
  Jamaat-e-Islami Party 22 9 1.31 (0.68-2.50) 0.419 25 6 0.51 (0.15-1.75) 0.285 30 1 2.03 (0.29-14.04) 0.472 28 3 3.97 (1.05-15.04) < 0.05
  Other 2 1 1.60 (0.16-15.64) 0.686 1 2 3.47 (0.31-38.33) 0.331 3 0 0 - 3 0 0 -
Social participation Not involved 473 133 1 - 444 162 1 - 601 5 1 - 587 19 1 -
  Family member has participated in a demonstration, a strike, or a human rights rally 308 184 2.10 (1.57-2.81) < 0.001 312 180 1.50 (0.88-2.57) 0.136 443 49 10.98 (5.07-23.78) < 0.001 433 59 3.64 (1.25-10.64) < 0.05
Inter-personal relationship Not involved 240 55 1 - 214 81 1 - 289 6 1 - 286 9 1 -
  Family member has personal, financial or political conflict with other families 541 262 2.38 (1.80-3.14) < 0.001 542 261 1.26 (0.71-2.21) 0.429 755 48 4.03 (2.23-7.27) < 0.001 734 69 3.68 (1.99-6.78) < 0.001
  No relationship 378 158 1 - 363 173 1 - 502 34 1 - 491 45 1 -
  Family member or friends work with a law enforcement agency 403 159 0.92 (0.67-1.27) 0.621 393 169 0.90 (0.65-1.24) 0.509 542 20 0.49 (0.29-0.81) < 0.01 529 33 0.63 (0.31-1.29) 0.207
Upazila (sub-district) Gangni upazila 355 94 1 - 329 120 1 - 447 2 1 - 441 8 1 -
  Mujibnagar upazila 113 87 2.62 (0.90-7.63) 0.078 105 95 2.38 (0.70-8.11) 0.165 197 3 2.23 (0.40-12.52) 0.362 181 19 5.63 (1.41-22.45) < 0.05
  Meherpur upazila 314 136 1.58 (1.00-2.49) 0.05 322 128 1.08 (0.34-3.49) 0.894 401 49 26.09 (2.75-247.28) < 0.005 399 51 6.38 (1.01-40.40) < 0.05
Religion of the head of household Muslim 754 304 1 - 729 329 1 - 981 77 1 - 981 77 1 -
  Hindu 18 7 0.80 (0.41-1.55) 0.511 16 9 1.01 (0.24-4.29) 0.992 24 1 0.73 (0.29-1.85) 0.507 24 1 0.53 (0.15-1.94) 0.339
Household income (Bangladesh taka: USD = 68:1) 0-2000 taka per month 193 56 1 - 178 71 1 - 246 3 1 - 239 10 1 -
  2001-4000 taka per month 377 150 1.41 (1.01-1.96) < 0.05 375 152 1.12 (0.70-1.81) 0.632 504 23 4.50 (0.78-25.97) < 0.05 489 38 2.00 (0.59-6.76) 0.263
  4001-8000 taka per month 159 82 1.84 (1.20-2.81) < 0.005 150 91 1.56 (0.98-2.48) 0.059 218 23 10.35 (1.45-73.79) < 0.05 214 27 3.35 (0.72-15.52) 0.122
  > 8000 taka per month 49 25 1.88 (1.01-3.48) < 0.05 50 24 1.09 (0.62-1.94) 0.757 70 4 4.80 (1.54-14.96) < 0.01 71 3 0.79 (0.16-3.97) 0.776
  1. Generalised linear model adjusted to household income level, size of family and cluster effect of village