Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Univariate and multivariate predictors of vaccination coverage

From: Childhood immunizations in China: disparities in health care access in children born to North Korean refugees

  Univariate (P < 0.20) Multivariate (P < 0.10 Model) Multivariate (P < 0.05 Model)
  OR 95 % CI P-value OR 95 % CI P-value OR 95 % CI P-value
Vaccines          
DTP          
Child sex          
 Female Ref         
 Male 0.91 (0.35, 2.38) 0.909       
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref         
  ≥ 41 1.67 (0.63, 4.43) 0.306       
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref    Ref      
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 3.60 (0.97, 13.40) 0.056 3.98 (0.96, 16.39) 0.056    
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref         
 Elementary 2.67 (0.19, 36.76) 0.464       
 None 2.76 (0.32, 23.57) 0.353       
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 1.38 (0.52, 3.67) 0.517       
Sibling          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 6.34 (0.79, 50.87) 0.082 5.63 (0.67, 47.28) 0.111    
Vaccination card          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 2.76 (1.01, 7.57) 0.048 1.70 (0.56, 5.11) 0.349    
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref    Ref      
 No 0.30 (0.89, 1.02) 0.054 0.35 (0.09, 1.38) 0.124    
HBV          
Child sex          
 Female Ref         
 Male 0.93 (0.39, 2.18) 0.859       
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref         
  ≥ 41 0.99 (0.41, 2.42) 0.988       
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref    Ref      
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 2.32 (0.93, 5.79) 0.072 2.55 (0.95, 7.74) 0.067    
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Elementary 0.38 (0.03, 5.17) 0.464 0.20 (0.01, 3.01) 0.243 0.28 (0.02, 3.95) 0.343
 None 0.18 (0.02, 1.54) 0.119 0.11 (0.01, 1.00) 0.050 0.14 (0.02, 1.17) 0.069
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 0.68 (0.29, 1.63) 0.387       
Sibling          
 No Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Yes 0.19 (0.04, 0.87) 0.032 0.16 (0.03, 0.78) 0.021 0.16 (0.03, 0.74) 0.019
Vaccination card          
 No Ref         
 Yes 0.84 (0.43, 2.87) 0.836       
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref         
 No 1.12 (0.33, 3.74) 0.859       
MMR          
Child sex          
 Female Ref         
 Male 0.88 (0.26, 2.97) 0.838       
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref         
  ≥ 41 0.77 (0.22, 2.65) 0.677       
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref         
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 1.15 (0.32, 4.17) 0.836       
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref    Ref      
 Elementary 3.50 (0.28, 43.16) 0.328 3.90 (0.30, 50.59) 0.298    
 None 4.13 (0.86, 19.79) 0.077 3.50 (0.70, 17.60) 0.128    
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 0.90 (0.26, 3.10) 0.873       
Sibling          
 No Ref         
 Yes 1.55 (0.37, 6.46) 0.549       
Vaccination card          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 0.34 (0.10, 1.17) 0.087 0.37 (0.10, 1.33) 0.127    
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref         
 No 2.30 (0.53, 9.96) 0.265       
POL          
Child sex          
 Female Ref    Ref      
 Male 0.21 (0.04, 1.04) 0.056 0.23 (0.04, 1.34) 0.101    
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref    Ref      
  ≥ 41 2.36 (0.66, 8.42) 0.188 2.49 (0.49, 12.69) 0.272    
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref         
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 2.17 (0.44, 10.75) 0.344       
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref    Ref      
 Elementary 0.29 (0.02, 3.52) 0.328 0.51 (0.02, 11.93) 0.674    
 None 0.21 (0.04, 1.02) 0.054 0.33 (0.04, 3.08) 0.327    
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 1.32 (0.37, 4.69) 0.671       
Sibling          
 No Ref         
 Yes - - -       
Vaccination card          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 2.34 (0.65, 8.48) 0.195 1.43 (0.28, 7.33) 0.669    
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref    Ref    Ref   
 No 0.08 (0.02, 0.33) <0.001 0.11 (0.02, 0.51) 0.005 0.08 (0.02, 0.33) <0.001
VAR          
Child sex          
 Female Ref    Ref      
 Male 2.93 (0.56, 15.36) 0.204 1.87 (0.32, 1.99) 0.488    
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref    Ref    Ref   
  ≥ 41 0.31 (0.07, 1.37) 0.122 0.10 (0.01, 0.95) 0.045 0.10 (0.01, 0.95) 0.045
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref         
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 1.40 (0.31, 6.30) 0.667       
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Elementary - - - - - - - - -
 None 6.90 (1.32, 36.17) 0.022 18.55 (1.67, 205.8) 0.017 21.54 (2.01, 231.3) 0.011
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 1.10 (0.25, 4.92) 0.901       
Sibling          
 No Ref         
 Yes 0.60 (0.07, 5.21) 0.642       
Vaccination card          
 No Ref         
 Yes 0.64 (0.14, 2.89) 0.561       
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref         
 No 2.18 (0.39, 12.20) 0.374       
JE          
Child sex          
 Female Ref    Ref      
 Male 2.10 (0.90, 4.87) 0.085 2.51 (0.98, 6.43) 0.054    
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref    Ref    Ref   
  ≥ 41 0.41 (0.16, 1.00) 0.050 0.36 (0.14, 0.97) 0.044 0.41 (0.16, 1.01) 0.050
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref         
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 0.87 (0.35, 2.12) 0.751       
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref         
 Elementary 2.00 (0.28, 14.20) 0.488       
 None 1.61 (0.37, 6.93) 0.523       
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref    Ref      
  ≥ 3000 1.81 (0.77, 4.24) 0.172 2.34 (0.91, 6.05) 0.081    
Sibling          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 0.35 (0.12, 1.06) 0.062 0.30 (0.09, 1.04) 0.057    
Vaccination card          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 0.36 (0.13, 0.97) 0.042 0.42 (0.14, 1.25) 0.119    
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref         
 No 1.93 (0.55, 6.79) 0.307       
1:3:3:3:1          
Child sex          
 Female Ref    Ref      
 Male 0.49 (0.17, 1.44) 0.192 0.37 (0.18, 1.89) 0.370    
Father’s age          
  < 40 Ref         
  ≥ 41 1.54 (0.54, 4.38) 0.422       
Father’s region of origin          
 Han Ref         
 Chinse-Korean (Chosun) 1.12 (0.38, 3.75) 0.759       
Father’s educational level          
 Middle-High Ref    Ref      
 Elementary 0.18 (0.02, 2.12) 0.173 0.31 (0.02, 4.81) 0.404    
 None 0.27 (0.06, 1.13) 0.073 0.45 (0.09, 2.28) 0.337    
Annual income          
  < 3000 Ref         
  ≥ 3000 0.72 (0.24, 2.12) 0.547       
Sibling          
 No Ref    Ref      
 Yes 4.77 (0.59, 38.64) 0.143 2.76 (0.32, 23.73) 0.356    
Vaccination card          
 No Ref         
 Yes 1.81 (0.61, 5.34) 0.283       
Previous miscarriage          
 Yes Ref    Ref    Ref   
 No 0.14 (0.04, 0.50) 0.002 0.18 (0.05, 0.69) 0.012 0.14 (0.04, 0.50) 0.002
  1. * - indicates “not able to be calculated”
  2. DTP diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, HBV hepatitis B, MMR measles-mumps-rubella, POL polio, VAR varicella zoster, JE Japanese encephalitis, 1:3:3:3:1 age-appropriate 1 dose of tuberculosis, 3 doses of hepatitis, 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, 3 doses of polio virus and 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccines series, Ref reference