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Table 1 Early or forced marriage terminology as defined by the studies in this review

From: Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review

Author Early or forced marriage [page number]
Amaireh [19] early marriage- any marriage where one or both persons are under 18 years and classified as children under international law [pg 14] forced marriage- any marriage where one or both parties have not given their consent, including early marriage [pg 14] temporary marriage- any marriage that is contractually time-limited and can last as little as a few days or even hours up to several years, and is sometimes accompanied by a one-time dowry payment which is often paid to the girl’s male guardian, these marriages can act as a form of sanctioned casual sex and even prostitution [pg 33]
Amowitz, [20] forced marriage to combatants- no definition [pg 518]
Bartels [26] child marriage- a formal marriage or informal union before age 18, also referred to as early marriage [pg 38–39]
Brosnan [27] early and/or forced marriage- no definition, but recognized as an act against female victims only [pg 2]
Carlson [28] forced marriage- coercive relationships without valid consent of the female and her family with the traditional characteristics of shared domicile, bearing of children, domestic responsibilities, exclusivity and sex [pg 14], but these marriages do not have any legal standard [pg 8]. Forced marriage includes constituent acts that are codified crimes in international customary and human rights law. These crimes include rape, sexual slavery, enforced pregnancy, forced labor, enslavement and torture. [pg 14–15]
Duroch, [21] forced wife- no definition [pg 6]
Gottschalk, [29] early marriage- marriage under the age of 18 [pg 3]
Higonnet [30] “wives” of rebels- abducted women forced to marry rebels [pg 41–42]
Johnson [38] forced marriage- no definition [pg 557]
Kaya [47] forced marriage- no definition, but includes child marriage [pg 44]
Kinyanda [23] forced marriage- no definition [pg 4]
Kippenberg [31] force marriage- no definition, but gives the example of individuals made to marry a soldier under threat of death [pg 30]
Kottegoda [24] early marriage- marriage before the age of 18 [pg 78]
Okello [25] forced to marry- no definition, but recognized as an act against female victims only [pg 227]
Save the children [32] early marriage- marriage before the age of 18, also referred to as child marriage [pg 3]
Schlecht [33] child marriage- marriage before 18 years of age [pg 1], also called early marriage forced marriage- no definition [pg 235]
Stavrou war husbands- no definition [pg 20]
Vindevogel [40] rebel wife- no definition [pg 555]
Weber [35] “wives” of Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) commanders- forced sexual slavery, subjected to rape, forced pregnancy, and the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS [pg 5]