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Table 2 Sexual exploitation of combatants terminology as defined by the studies in this review

From: Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review

Author Sexual exploitation of combatants [page number]
Bayer [36] former child soldiers- an individual under 18 years old that reported being (often violently) recruited by armed forces [pg 555] forced sexual contact- no definition [pg 558]
Betancourt [37] child soldier- both boys and girls who are part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or armed group in any capacity, including, but not limited to: cooks, porters, messengers and those recruited for sexual purposes and for forced marriage [pg 21] sexual abuse or sexual assault- no definition, but rape and forced marriage mentioned as two examples [pg 22]
Betancourt [52] child soldier- no definition [pg 1] sexual violence- no definition [pg 1] rape- no definition [pg 1]
Carlson [28] LRA combatant- LRA rebels fighting the government of Uganda (the study was looking at LRA perpetrated abductions) [pg 4] abduction- no definition, absence of dowry is used synonymously with abduction [pg 52] sexual violence- no definition given but examples used are rape, sexual based crimes, gender based crimes, forced impregnation [pg 6, 15]
CSUCS [53] child soldier- A child associated with an armed force or armed group refers to any person below 18 years of age who is, or who has been, recruited or used by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, spies or for sexual purposes. It does not only refer to a child who is taking, or has taken, a direct part in hostilities. (UNCEF 2007) [pg Title page] sexual violence- no definition, but includes sexual abuse and rape [pg 28] LRA sex slaves- no definition [pg 17]
Denov [42] child soldier- any person below 18 years of age who is or who has been recruited or used by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies or for sexual purposes. It does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities [pg 805] sexual violence- sexual labor, sexual assault, systematic raping, sexual exploitation [pg 794]
Denov [43] child soldier- children engaged in the conflict, child combatants [pg 74] sexual violence- gang rape, individual rape and/or rape with objects, also referred to as sexual slavery, sexual harassment, sexual victimization [pg 77]
Higonnet [30] female child soldiers- girls formerly associated with the armed conflict as soldiers, cooks, porters, sex slaves, or in some combination of these roles [pg 37] sexual violence- sexually exploitive acts including individual and gang rape, sexual slavery, forced incest, and egregious sexual assault [pg 3] and defined as a form of GBV along with sexual abuse, domestic violence, emotional and psychological abuse, trafficking, forced prostitution, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment, and harmful traditional practices (e.g. female genital mutilation, forced marriage, or widow cleansing) [pg 131]
Johnson [38] combatant- any person who reported being part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force in any capacity, including but not limited to participation in combat, laying mines or explosives, serving as a cook or domestic laborer, decoy, courier, guide, guard, porter, or spy, trained or drilled as a combatant, or serving as a sexual servant/slave [pg 680] sexual servitude- individual forced to be a sexual servant or sexual slave to a government or nongovernment military or militia group at any point in their life [pg 680] sexual violence- any violence, physical or psychological, carried out through sexual means or by targeting sexuality and included rape and attempted rape, molestation, forced undressing, forced intercourse, or other sexual acts [pg 680] sexual slavery, being forced to undress or being stripped of clothing, forced marriage, and insertion of foreign objects into the genital opening or anus, forcing 2 individuals to perform sexual acts on one another or harm one another in a sexual manner, or mutilating a person’s genitals [pg 680]
Klasen [39] child soldier- any person under 18 years of age associated with an armed force or armed group in any capacity ranging from combatants to cooks [pg 1098] sexual violence- no definition, but includes acts of sexual insults, sexual touching, rape (also referred to as sexual abuse and sexual trauma) [pg 1102]
Stavrou [34] child soldiers- children under the age of 18 serving in the armed forces, also called underage soldiers [pg 12] sex labor- no definition, but the primary example used was rape [pg 45]
Vindevogel [40] child soldiers- any person under 18 years of age who is part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to cooks, porters, messengers, and anyone accompanying such groups, other than family members, including girls recruited for sexual purposes and for forced marriage [pg 553] sexual abuse- no definition [pg 556]
Weber [35] abductees- individuals taken by the military and used as soldiers, porters, laborers, and in the case of girls, as sexual slaves [pg 11]