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Table 4 Findings from the quantitative studies (n = 14)

From: Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review

Author (Year) Country Setting Study population Average age in years Type of sexual exploitation or trafficking % of female sample victimized (95% CI)a [n/total female] % of male sample victimized (95% CI)a [n/total male] % total sample victimized (95% CI)a [n/total] % Perpetrator sample that were military personnel (95% CI)a [n/total] Quality score
Amaireh [19] Jordan Refugee camps Syrian refugees living in Jordan - Early or forced marriage 51.3% 13.0% 33.2% - 67%
Amowitz [20] Sierra Leone Internally displaced persons camps Heads of households Avg. 34 years 34 Sex slavery 1.5% [15/991] - 1.5% [15/991] - 80%
Early or forced marriage 1.0% [9/991] - 1.0% [9/991] 100% [9/9]
Bartels [45] DRC Panzi Hospital (specialty hospital for GBV victims) Sexual violence survivors requesting services, Avg. 35 years 35 Sex slavery 12.0% [573/4778] - - - 43%
Bayer [36] DRC Rehabilitation centers Former child soldiers Avg. 15.3 years 15.3 Sexual exploitation of combatants 57.1% [16/28] 22.0% [31/141] 27.8% [47/169] - 63%
Betancourt [37] Sierra Leone, post-conflict regions Conflict affected regions Former child soldiers Avg. 16.5 years 16.5 Sexual exploitation of combatants 44.3% [35/79] 5.0% [9/194] 16.0% [44/273] 100% 67%
Duroch [21] DRC MSF sexual violence clinics Survivors of sexual violence, Avg. 25.7 years 25.7 Sex slavery 16.6% [408/2462] 65.1% [67/103] 18.5% [475/2565] - 53%
Early or forced marriage 3.5% [86/2462] 0.0% [0/103] 4.0% [86/2152]
Johnson [38] Liberia Conflict affected regions 1666 adults - Sexual exploitation of combatants 9.1% [80/880] 15.01% [118/786] 11.2% [198/1666] 86.1% [167/194] 93%
Johnson [22] Eastern DRC Conflict affected regions Household heads who are 18 years+, Avg. 41 years 41 Early or forced marriage 3.4% (0.0–0.1) [6/202] 0.0% [0/88] 2.0% [6/290] - 77%
Sex slavery 21.1% [52/222] 19.6% [24/103] 23.0% [76/325]
Kinyanda [23] Uganda Internally displaced persons camps IDPs - Sex slavery 7.9% [45/573] 1.7% [4/240] 6.0% [49/813] 98.0% [49/50] 73%
  Early or forced marriage 4.4% [25/573] 1.7% [4/240] 3.6% [29/813] 86.2% [25/29]
Klasen [39] Uganda Boarding schools for conflict affected youth Former child soldiers 14.4 Sexual exploitation of combatants 29.4% [47/160] 22.4% [38/170] 25.8% [85/330] 100% 80%
Kottegoda [24] Sri Lanka Conflict affected regions Women from various districts - Early or forced marriage 31.0% - - - 87%
Nelson [46] DRC Panzi Hospital (specialty hospital for GBV victims) Survivors of sexual violence - Paediatric sex slavery (<18 years) 17.2% [67/389] - - 100% 67%
Adult sex slavery 12.4% [430/3458] - - 100%
Okello, [25] Uganda Youth organizations and universities War-affected adolescents, Ages 11–19 years - Early or forced marriage - - 11.8% [18/153] 100% 97%
     Sex slavery - - 11.1% (17/153) 100%
Vindevogel [40] Uganda Former child soldier at rehabilitation centers Former child soldiers 14 Sexual exploitation of combatants 56.0% [337/654] 0.0% [0/1,176] 18.4% (337/1,830) - 63%
  1. aThe 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and/or percentage numerator and denominator [n/N] is included in the table if it was provided by the study. If not listed it means the study did not report these figures