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Table 2 Impoverishing impact of OOP healthcare payments (rural/urban) in Ghana using the $1.25/day poverty line, 2005/06

From: Assessing the impoverishment effects of out-of-pocket healthcare payments prior to the uptake of the national health insurance scheme in Ghana

  Rural Urban
National Gross of health payment(1) Net of health payment(2) Absolute 3 = (2)-(1) Relative [(3)/(1)]*100 Gross of health payment (1) Net of health payment(2) Absolute 3 = (2)-(1) Relative [(3)/(1)]*100
Poverty headcount 24.60% 26.55% 1.95% 7.92% 4.60% 5.61% 1.01% 21.92%
Standard error 0.24603 0.26552 0.01949   0.00878 0.00959 0.00209  
Poverty gap 132947.4 168074.5 35127.13 26.42% 21749.56 66729.64 44980.07 206.81%
Standard error 9021.38 12,135 7717.53   5603.97 29485.95 28742.86  
Normalized poverty gap 7.83% 9.90% 2.07% 26.42% 1.28% 3.93% 2.65% 206.81%
Standard error 0.00531 0.00715 0.00455   0.00330 0.01737 0.01693  
Normalized mean poverty gap 31.83% 37.29% 5.46% 17.14% 27.84% 70.05% 42.21% 151.65%
Standard error 0.0123 0.01924   0.03170 0.30448