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Table 2 Perceptions of migrant member health from migrant households in southern India, 2013 (n = 137)

From: Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study

Perceived deterioration in health (n = 62)
How has health deteriorated for migrant members since migration started? Total number of migrant households
(% of all migrant households)
Experienced a medium health problem (e.g. respiratory problem; broken bone; etc.) 29 (21.17%)
Body pain 18 (13.14%)
Decline in mental health 18 (13.14%)
Fever 11 (8.03%)
Decrease in energy level 10 (7.30%)
Chronic headache 10 (7.30%)
Major health problem (e.g. amputation; cancer; etc.) 5 (3.65%)
Why has health deteriorated for migrant members?  
Long working hours 24 (17.52%)
Job is physically demanding 24 (17.52%)
Poor working conditions and environment 14 (10.22%)
Bad employer 13 (9.49%)
Poor access to food 7 (5.11%)
Poor housing 5 (3.65%)
Started drinking 3 (2.19%)
Started drinking and smoking 1 (0.73%)
Long commute 1 (0.73%)
Unknown 1 (0.73%)
Perceived improvement in health (n = 18)
How has health improved for migrant members since migration started? Total number of migrant households
(% of all migrant households)
Improvement in mental health 17 (12.41%)
Increased energy level 8 (5.84%)
Acquired new skills 1 (0.73%)
Why has health improved for migrant members?  
Good working hours 13 (9.49%)
Good access to food 10 (7.30%)
Job is not physically demanding 9 (6.57%)
Good employer 6 (4.38%)
Good housing 3 (2.19%)
No perceived change in health (n = 45)
Unknown (n = 12)
  1. Respondents could report multiple health outcomes and reasons for health outcomes