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Table 2 Panel unit root test results

From: Health expenditure, child and maternal mortality nexus: a comparative global analysis

Cross-sectional Augmented IPS (CIPS*) (Trend)
Dep.Variables HE IMR MMR U5MR LFE
Income Groups Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff
GL −2.13 − 3.74* − 2.42 − 3.31* − 2.54 − 4.26* − 2.65 − 2.88* − 2.95* − 3.83*
LY − 2.70 − 4.27* −2.38 − 2.72* − 1.90 − 3.33* −2.04 − 2.71* −2.85* − 2.77*
LM −2.44 − 3.44* − 2.53 −2.98* − 2.09 − 3.16* − 3.23* 3.86* − 3.11* − 3.98*
HM − 2.52 − 3.54* − 2.12 −2.95* − 2.36 − 4.42* −2.17 − 2.96* − 3.98* − 4.13*
HY − 1.49 − 2.94* −2.02 − 3.09* 2.75* − 5.12* − 2.21 − 3.02* − 2.73* − 4.42*
Harris–Tsavalis (HT) (Trend)
Dep. Variables HE IMR MMR U5MR LFE
Income Groups Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff
GL 5.51 −16.51* 8.52 − 5.42* 12.34 9.13+ − 12.27* −41.78* 13.98 6.05+
LY 1.07 − 13.35* 0.61 − 14.90* 6.02 5.22+ −13.20* − 27.22* 8.87 6.69+
LM 4.17 −12.82* 7.12 5.54+ 5.71 −5.79* 6.09 −7.17* 12.12 10.27+
HM 2.97 −10.25* 5.34 3.62+ 5.92 −3.88* 5.93 3.29 1.68 −4.33*
HY 3.23 −10.26* 6.99 −5.16* − 0.66 − 15.58* 6.88 5.92 4.37 −7.24*
Cross-sectional Augmented IPS (CIPS*) (Constant)
Dep. Variables HE IMR MMR U5MR LFE
Income Groups Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff
GL −2.20* −3.69* −2.47* − 2.53* −2.42* −3.68* − 2.78* −2.45* − 2.12 −3.17*
LY −3.16* −4.37* −2.78* − 2.45* −1.36 −2.50* − 2.39* 2.31* − 3.33* − 2.88*
LM − 2.82* −3.79* − 2.44* −2.32* − 2.09 −3.17* − 3.23* −2.51* −1.14 −3.10*
HM −3.25* −3.57* −2.30* --2.61* −2.63* −3.80* −2.42* −1.81 −1.87 −4.18*
HY −1.83 −3.41* −2.03* −3.10* −2.75* −4.63* − 2.32* − 3.02* −2.38* − 4.23*
Harris–Tsavalis (HT) (Constant)
Dep. Variables HE IMR MMR U5MR LFE
Income Groups Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff Level 1st Diff
GL 11.05 −54.82* 10.16 −64.33* 9.35 −27.68* 6.72 −98.98* 12.27 −27.33*
LY 2.51 −16.51* 8.51 −5.41* 9.34 −27.68* 6.72 −98.97* 6.88 −30.25*
LM 4.17 −12.82* 7.21 −6.35* 3.83 −32.64* 5.27 −27.17* 7.08 1.13+
HM 2.87 −10.16* 5.27 3.57+ 1.51 −5.46* 5.01 −7.91* 6.20 −34.49*
HY 11.05 −54.82* 10.16 −64.32* 9.34 −27.68* 6.72 −98.97* 11.00 −27.33*
  1. Notes: *Significant at the 5% confidence interval. +Not stationary at 1st difference. The optimal lag used for CIPS* test was based on MBIC and MAIC lag selection criteria. For the CIPS test the results of trend option are presented and the HT test the ‘Demean’ option was used to control for cross-sectional means. Here, HE Health expenditure per capita, GL Global, LY Low-income, LM Lower-middle, HM Higher-middle and HY High-income countries