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Table 8 Mean group estimation ARDL model (with total factor productivity)

From: Health expenditure, child and maternal mortality nexus: a comparative global analysis

Income Groups Independent variables IMR MMR U5MR
Long Short Long Short Long Short
LY HEPC 0.49* (.15) −0.03*(.004) 1.7(2.6) −0.25*(.10) −0.42*(.10) −0.10*(.00)
N = 24 TFP −0.52 (.41) 0.003(.02) 1.2*(5.1) −0.21(.15) −4.1*(.38) 0.01*(.03)
LM HEPC −0.003*(.00) −0.05*(.01) − 0.01*(.00) − 0.01(0.01) − 0.01(.00) − 0.005(.02)
N = 32 TFP 0.04(.02) 0.00(.002) 0.21*(.03) − 0.13(0.07) 0.01(.02) 0.002(.01)
HM HEPC 0.01 (.001) − 0.01(.01) − 0.01*(.00) − 0.002(.00) 0.01*(.00) − 0.002(.01)
N = 22 TFP −0.18*(.07) 0.01*(.003) 0.15(.12) −0.05(.02) −0.02(.06) 0.01(.01)
HY HEPC −0.002*(.00) −0.001*(.01) − 0.003*(.00) −0.003*(.00) − 0.002*(.00) −0.001*(.00)
N = 37 TFP −0.01(.02) −0.002(.001) 0.02(.03) −0.02(.01) − 0.02(0.01) −0.001(.001)
  1. Notes: Figures in brackets are the standard errors. * Significant at 5% confidence interval. N indicates number of countries in each income groups