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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of survey participants during ADAA and FSA periods

From: Mandatory minimum sentencing policies and cocaine use in the U.S., 1985–2013

  ADAA FSA
1985 1988 1990 2009 2012 2013
n = 6456 [N = 171,780,375] n = 6948 [N = 181,588,628] n = 7892 [N = 186,296,389] n = 43,227 [N = 228,441,140] n = 43,684 [N = 236,094,646] n = 43,663 [N = 239,616,555]
% (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE)
Younger than 25 years old 22.47% (0.007) 20.72% (0.007) 20.02% (0.006) 18.19% (0.002) 18.22% (0.002) 18.20% (0.002)
Female 53.53% (0.010) 52.32% (0.008) 52.49% (0.009) 51.94% (0.004) 52.08% (0.004) 51.96% (0.005)
Race
 Non-Hispanic White 80.47% (0.011) 79.53% (0.014) 78.84% (0.016) 67.46% (0.004) 65.64% (0.004) 65.22% (0.004)
 Non-Hispanic Black 10.85% (0.007) 10.99% (0.011) 10.98% (0.013) 11.99% (0.003) 11.70% (0.003) 11.92% (0.003)
 Hispanic 6.79% (0.007) 7.27% (0.008) 7.54% (0.009) 14.15% (0.003) 15.12% (0.003) 15.31% (0.003)
 Other 1.90% (0.003) 2.20% (0.003) 2.65% (0.004) 6.40% (0.002) 7.54% (0.003) 7.55% (0.003)
Marital status
 Married 60.38% (0.009) 60.37% (0.010) 61.15% (0.011) 52.83% (0.004) 50.89% (0.004) 50.36% (0.004)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 16.19% (0.007) 16.83% (0.006) 16.74% (0.008) 18.06% (0.004) 19.55% (0.004) 19.47% (0.004)
 Never married 23.44% (0.007) 22.81% (0.008) 22.11% (0.008) 29.10% (0.003) 29.57% (0.003) 30.16% (0.003)
Education
 15–18 year olds 5.76% (0.003) 5.53% (0.002) 5.31% (0.002) 5.19% (0.001) 5.01% (0.001) 4.93% (0.001)
 Less than high school 23.61% (0.010) 24.30% (0.011) 22.74% (0.010) 14.29% (0.003) 13.68% (0.003) 12.64% (0.003)
 High school graduate 35.18% (0.010) 34.34% (0.010) 34.22% (0.010) 29.10% (0.004) 28.11% (0.004) 28.09% (0.004)
 Some college 18.29% (0.008) 18.87% (0.009) 18.67% (0.008) 23.68% (0.004) 24.90% (0.004) 25.59% (0.004)
 College graduate 17.15% (0.011) 16.96% (0.009) 19.06% (0.011) 27.74% (0.004) 28.30% (0.004) 28.75% (0.004)
Annual Income (quartiles)
 0–25% 17.17% (0.009) 17.73% (0.009) 22.04% (0.010) 17.15% (0.003) 18.62% (0.003) 18.00% (0.003)
 25–50% 21.58% (0.007) 17.88% (0.008) 16.64% (0.006) 21.64% (0.004) 22.10% (0.004) 20.49% (0.003)
 50–75% 29.72% (0.009) 28.76% (0.010) 23.60% (0.008) 28.37% (0.004) 27.24% (0.004) 28.04% (0.004)
 75–100% 26.69% (0.011) 30.61% (0.012) 31.04% (0.011) 32.83% (0.004) 32.04% (0.004) 33.47% (0.004)
 Unknown 4.84% (0.004) 5.01% (0.006) 6.68% (0.007)       
Alcohol Use in Past Year 74.29% (0.013) 69.72% (0.012) 67.49% (0.015) 68.69% (0.004) 68.36% (0.004) 68.26% (0.004)
Cigarette Use in Past Year 35.88% (0.009) 34.38% (0.009) 32.32% (0.009) 27.04% (0.004) 25.61% (0.004) 24.84% (0.004)
Marijuana Use in Past Year 12.94% (0.005) 9.50% (0.005) 9.34% (0.005) 9.64% (0.002) 10.69% (0.002) 11.23% (0.002)
  1. Notes: SE standard error