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Table 2 Bivariate Associations with Health Care Utilization

From: The relationship between depression and sexual health service utilization among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

Characteristic Health care use   RDS
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI)
Depression
 Not depressed Ref   
 Depressed 1.69 (1.35–2.12) <0.001 1.87 (1.32–2.66)
Age
  < 20 Ref   
 20–24 1.73 (1.22–2.48) 0.002 2.63 (1.55–4.46)
 25–29 2.64 (1.80–3.88) < 0.001 3.73 (2.08–6.70)
  ≥ 30 2.44 (1.51–3.93) < 0.001 3.45 (1.69–7.08)
Education
 Never Ref   
 Primary/less 0.79 (0.37–1.69) 0.546 0.50 (0.17–1.47)
 Secondary 0.59 (0.31–1.14) 0.118 0.45 (0.19–1.09)
 Above Secondary 1.21 (0.61–2.37) 0.591 0.89 (0.35–2.26)
Employment
 Yes Ref   
 No 0.67 (0.47–0.96) 0.027*~ 0.72 (0.41-1.26)
 Student 0.68 (0.53–0.87) 0.002*~ 0.78 (0.53-1.15)
Alcohol use (score)
 Low risk (0–7) Ref   
 Hazardous use (8–15) 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.721 1.10 (0.72–1.69)
 Harmful level (16–19) 1.10 (0.70–1.73) 0.694 1.09 (0.57–2.10)
 Almost Certainly Dependent level (≥20) 0.97 (0.62–1.50) 0.877 0.93 (0.47–1.83)
Place of residence
 Alone Ref   
 Living with family/spouse 1.10 (0.76–1.59) 0.628 0.97 (0.56–1.69)
 Living with friend/MSM/other 1.55 (0.94–2.58) 0.088 0.98 (0.45–2.12)
Gender
 Transgender Ref   
 Male 0.59 (0.45–0.77) < 0.001*~ 0.74 (0.48-1.15)
Sex orientation
 Bisexual Ref   
 Homosexual 0.90 (0.72–1.13) 0.371 0.70 (0.49–1.01)
 Heterosexual 2.81 (1.05–7.50) 0.039 5.67 (1.57–20.48)
Forced sex
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.44 (1.07–1.94) 0.017*~ 0.96 (0.56-1.63)
Condom use
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.19 (0.87–1.64) 0.275* 1.95 (1.18-3.21)
Family/friend
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.41 (1.12–1.77) 0.003*~ 1.34 (0.94-1.91)
Health care- perceived
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 0.576 1.36 (0.94–1.97)
Health care – enacted
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.69 (1.15–2.48) 0.008*~ 1.26 (0.72-2.20)
Social
 No Ref   
 Yes 1.38 (1.09–1.75) 0.007*~ 1.38 (0.97-1.98)
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, Family stigma Felt Excluded from family activity, discriminatory remark by family, felt rejected, Perceived healthcare stigma: afraid to use health services, avoided health service for STI/HIV, Enacted healthcare stigma: Felt not well treated, heard healthcare worker gossiped, Social stigma: felt police refused to protect, arrested on charges of homosexuality, ever jailed, scared to walk in public, verbally abused, blackmailed, physically hurt
  2. *~ not significant after Respondent Driven sampling (RDS) adjustment
  3. *significant after RDS adjustment
  4. Bolded p-values implies significance for RDS adjustment and for the model