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Table 7 Instrumental variable regression estimates of relationship between CRC adoption and child mortality and vaccination rates

From: Effects of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on child mortality and vaccination rates: a synthetic control analysis

Variables included in regression in year t (except as specified) Dependent variable in year t + 5
Infant mortality rate Under-5 mortality rate BCG vaccine rate DTP1 vaccine rate DTP3 vaccine rate MCV1 vaccine rate Polio3 vaccine rate
CRC adoption −0.12 1.13 6.05 −1.88 −1.50 1.16 −2.11
Ln (population) −1.12** −2.54* 1.71** 1.45** 1.59* 1.84** 1.94**
Ln (GDP per capita) −0.64 −1.77 3.82** 1.13 1.69 3.57* 2.18
Trade as percent of GDP 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.01
ODA as percent of GNI −0.18* −0.43* 0.15 0.05 0.10 0.08 0.10
Polity IV democracy index −0.06 −0.36 0.02 0.20 0.32 0.23 0.38
Polity IV durability 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 −0.02 −0.01 − 0.01
Civil war 0.72 0.91 −0.51 −2.06 −1.64 −1.27 2.93
International war −3.07+ −7.07+ −0.86 0.31 1.86 2.72 0.78
Dependent variable 1.50*** 1.10*** 0.65*** 0.60*** 0.76*** 0.63*** 0.69***
Dependent variable in year t-5 −0.54*** −0.18 − 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05
Country-years 356 356 288 327 327 327 327
R-squared .98 .97 .55 .55 .69 .61 .66
  1. Note. All regressions use the following variables as instruments for CRC adoption: Simmons ratification hurdles index, DPI federalism index, prior ICESCR adoption, prior CEDAW adoption, and prior regional CRC adoption percent. All regressions include year fixed effects and cluster-robust standard errors. 1990 ≤ t ≤ 1995
  2. + p < .10; * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001