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Table 1 Variables employed in the estimations

From: Illicit financial flows and the provision of child and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries

Variable Definition Data source
Family planning, coverage The percentage of total demand for family planning among married or in-union women aged 15–49 years World Health Organization
Antenatal care, coverage Percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy. World Bank
DTP3, coverage The percentage of 1-year-olds who have received three doses of combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine in a given year World Health Organization
Measles, coverage The percentage of children less than 1 year who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year World Health Organization
Tuberculosis, coverage Tuberculosis effective treatment = Case detection rate (all forms) · Treatment success rate for all new cases World Health Organization
Sanitation, Coverage Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities ranging from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection World Health Organization
Hospital beds Total number of beds per 1000 population. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centres World Health Organization
Physicians Total number of physicians per 1000 population World Health Organization
IFF IFFS are illegal movements of money or capital in current US$ from one country to another. The illegal capital outflows stem from crime, corruption, tax evasion, and other illicit activity. Current US $. Global Financial Integrity
Trade Total trade, in current US$ World Trade Organization
IFFT (IFF / Trade) · 100 Authors
GDPpc GDP per capita, in constant 2011 international $ World Bank
GIR, 1st grade of primary education, female Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age United Nations
Urban population Percentage of people living in urban areas, as defined by national statistical offices United Nations
Births attended Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total) World Bank
CPI Corruption Perceptions Index, values from 0 (highly corrupt) to 10 (clean country) Transparency International
Density Population density (people per km2) United Nations
Dependency Dependency ratio is the ratio (in %) of dependents (people younger than 15 or older than 64 years) to the working-age population (those aged 15–64 years). World Bank
Literacy Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people aged 15 years or more who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life. United Nations
Labour force participation rate, female The female labour force as a percentage of the total shows the extent to which women are active in the labour force. Labour force comprises people aged 15 years or more who supply labour for the production of goods and services during a specified period World Bank
Population Total population between the ages 15 to 64 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. United Nations
EAP EAP equals 1 for the countries that belong to the East Asia & Pacific region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors
ECA ECA equals 1 for the countries that belong to the Europe & Central Asia region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors
LAC LAC equals 1 for the countries that belong to the Latin America & Caribbean region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors
MENA MENA equals 1 for the countries that belong to the Middle East & North Africa region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors
SA SA equals 1 for the countries that belong to the South Asia region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors
SSA SSA equals 1 for the countries that belong to the Sub-Saharan Africa region, and equals 0 otherwise. Authors