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Health and human rights of marginalized populations

This section considers studies regarding the health and human rights of members of marginalized populations, including sexual and gender minorities, children, migrants, ethnic minorities, refugees, displaced people, commercial sex workers, injection drug users, and other marginalized populations.

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  1. Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections ...

    Authors: Shira M. Goldenberg, Teresita Rocha Jiménez, Kimberly C. Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda and Jay G. Silverman

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researc...

    Authors: Padam Simkhada, Edwin van Teijlingen, Manju Gurung and Sharada P. Wasti

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:4

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health fa...

    Authors: Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J. S. M. Krumeich and Onno C. P. van Schayck

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:3

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Albinism is an inherited condition with a relatively high prevalence in populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. People with oculocutaneous albinism have little or no pigment in their hair, skin and eyes; th...

    Authors: Anita Franklin, Patricia Lund, Caroline Bradbury-Jones and Julie Taylor

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:2

    Content type: Debate

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  5. Globally, one of the key groups considered to be at high risk of acquiring HIV are transgender women, often a marginalised group. In the Malaysian context there has been a scarcity of published research relati...

    Authors: Sima Barmania and Syed Mohamed Aljunid

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:30

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital commun...

    Authors: Jessica S. Schwind, Stephanie A. Norman, Dibesh Karmacharya, David J. Wolking, Sameer M. Dixit, Rajesh M. Rajbhandari, Sumiko R. Mekaru and John S. Brownstein

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:26

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may ha...

    Authors: Warren Dodd, Sally Humphries, Kirit Patel, Shannon Majowicz, Matthew Little and Cate Dewey

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:23

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced se...

    Authors: Emma Williams, Elizabeth Hurwitz, Immaculate Obaga, Brenda Onguti, Adovich Rivera, Tyrone Reden L. Sy, R. Lee Kirby, Jamie Noon, Deepti Tanuku, Anthony Gichangi and Eva Bazant

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:22

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by pro...

    Authors: Julika Ayla Kaplan, Jonathan Kandodo, Joseph Sclafani, Susan Raine, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Alison Norris, Abigail Norris-Turner, Elly Chemey, John Michael Beckham, Zara Khan and Reginald Chunda

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:17

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populat...

    Authors: Alex Müller

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:16

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The Thai government ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2008, and the first progress report by the State Party was issued in 2012. This study assesses ...

    Authors: Donruedee Srisuppaphon, Arnon Sriboonroj, Wachara Riewpaiboon and Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Based on an analysis of published literature, this paper provides an over-view of the challenges associated with delivering on the right to access quality health care for international migrants to industrializ...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjée, Wendy E. Short and Karine Bates

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:10

    Content type: Debate

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  13. Wars and violent domestic conflicts have forced millions of people to move outside their homes. Meeting the basic health needs of those people requires an understanding of research activity and research output...

    Authors: Waleed M. Sweileh

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:7

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is a significant aspect of adolescents’ growth, safeguarded by SRH rights (SRHR). Despite various global efforts to promote adolescents SRHR (ASRHR), the majority of adoles...

    Authors: Sarosh Iqbal, Rubeena Zakar, Muhammad Zakria Zakar and Florian Fischer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Underreporting of childhood sexual abuse is a major barrier to obtaining reliable prevalence estimates. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of the face-to-face-interview (FTFI) method by comparing the nu...

    Authors: Anna Louise Barr, Louise Knight, Ivan Franҫa-Junior, Elizabeth Allen, Dipak Naker and Karen M. Devries

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:4

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The cause-specific under-five mortality of Bangladesh has been studied by fitting cumulative incidence function (CIF) based Fine and Gray competing risk regression model (1999). For the purpose of analysis, Ba...

    Authors: Khandoker Akib Mohammad, Most. Fatima-Tuz-Zahura and Wasimul Bari

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:3

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-d...

    Authors: Saide Yacine Y.A. Ouédraogo, Ebrima J. Sisawo and Song-Lih Huang

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:1

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be pow...

    Authors: Robindra Basu Roy, Nicola Brandt, Nicolette Moodie, Mitra Motlagh, Kumanan Rasanathan, James A. Seddon, Anne K. Detjen and Beate Kampmann

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:32

    Content type: Debate

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  19. Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-cal...

    Authors: S. Anderson, K. Shannon, J. Li, Y. Lee, J. Chettiar, S. Goldenberg and A. Krüsi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:30

    Content type: Research article

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  20. HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rig...

    Authors: Deepika Ganju, Sangram Kishor Patel, Parimi Prabhakar and Rajatashurva Adhikary

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:29

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Women who engage in sex work are at risk for experiencing violence from numerous perpetrators, including paying partners. Empirical evidence has shown mixed results regarding the impact of participation in mic...

    Authors: Laura Cordisco Tsai, Catherine E. Carlson, Toivgoo Aira, Andrea Norcini Pala, Marion Riedel and Susan S. Witte

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:27

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Informal settlements are common throughout the developing world. In Peru, land occupations, commonly “invasions” in Spanish, are a means by which the extremely poor attempt to obtain access to land. Here, we e...

    Authors: Gwenyth O. Lee, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Pablo Peñataro Yori and Margaret Kosek

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:26

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Arab Americans have a high burden of diabetes and poor outcomes compared to the general U.S. population. Diabetes self-management (DSM) requires a partnership between patients and providers that fosters mutual...

    Authors: Heather Fritz, Rosanne DiZazzo-Miller, Elizabeth A. Bertran, Fredrick D. Pociask, Sandra Tarakji, Judith Arnetz, Catherine L. Lysack and Linda A. Jaber

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:22

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:24

  24. Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and ...

    Authors: Carmen H. Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Nakia Lee-Foon, Shannon Ryan and Hope Ramsay

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Although health is a right of all individuals without any distinction, the realisation of this right has remained very difficult for the marginalised populations of poor countries. Inequitable distribution of ...

    Authors: John Barugahare and Reidar K. Lie

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:15

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Achieving development outcomes requires the inclusion of marginalised populations that have the least opportunity to participate in and benefit from development. Slum dwellers often see little of the ‘urban ad...

    Authors: Martha Morrow, Greg Armstrong, Prarthna Dayal and Michelle Kermode

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Equitable access to health care is a challenge in many low-income countries. The most vulnerable segments of any population face increased challenges, as their vulnerability amplifies problems of the general p...

    Authors: Stine Hellum Braathen, Lifah Sanudi, Leslie Swartz, Thomas Jürgens, Hastings T Banda and Arne Henning Eide

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:12

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights states that the right to health is closely related to, and dependent upon, the realization of other human rights, including the right to food, water, educa...

    Authors: Bernadette Ann-Marie O’Hare, Delan Devakumar and Stephen Allen

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:11

    Content type: Debate

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  29. More than 14 % of Ugandan children are orphaned and many live in children’s homes. Ugandan authorities have targeted adolescent girls as a priority group for nutrition interventions as safeguarding nutritional...

    Authors: Line Erikstad Vogt, Byaruhanga Rukooko, Per Ole Iversen and Wenche Barth Eide

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:10

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Pre- and post-migration trauma due to forced migration may impact negatively on parents’ ability to care for their children. Little qualitative work has examined Somali-born refugees’ experiences. The aim of t...

    Authors: Fatumo Osman, Marie Klingberg-Allvin, Renée Flacking and Ulla-Karin Schön

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:7

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Relatively little research on the issue of child marriage has been conducted in European countries where the overall prevalence of child marriage is relatively low, but relatively high among marginalized ethni...

    Authors: David R. Hotchkiss, Deepali Godha, Anastasia J. Gage and Claudia Cappa

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Conflict and post-conflict communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a high under recognised problem of intimate partner violence (IPV). Part of the reason for this has been the limited data on IPV from conflict ...

    Authors: Eugene Kinyanda, Helen A Weiss, Margaret Mungherera, Patrick Onyango-Mangen, Emmanuel Ngabirano, Rehema Kajungu, Johnson Kagugube, Wilson Muhwezi, Julius Muron and Vikram Patel

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:5

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmenta...

    Authors: Agnes Binagwaho, Kirstin W. Scott and Sardis H. Harward

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2016 16:1

    Content type: Debate

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  34. Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the ...

    Authors: Ronald Wesonga, Abraham Owino, Agnes Ssekiboobo, Leonard Atuhaire and Peter Jehopio

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2015 15:11

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Despite the instruments on the right to adequate food adopted by the United Nations, there exists limited information on how this right is perceived. Following a major 2010 landslide disaster in the Bududa dis...

    Authors: Peter M Rukundo, Per O Iversen, Bård A Andreassen, Arne Oshaug, Joyce Kikafunda and Byaruhanga Rukooko

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2015 15:9

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Gender norms have been challenged by unmarried rural women’s migration for employment to urban Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones (FTZ). Men are described as looking for sexual experiences among the women workers, wh...

    Authors: Malin Jordal, Kumudu Wijewardena, Ann Öhman, Birgitta Essén and Pia Olsson

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2015 15:3

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The quality of care includes several aspects which may be influenced by social-economic status.

    Authors: Chiara de Waure, Stefania Bruno, Giuseppe Furia, Luca Di Sciullo, Serena Carovillano, Maria Lucia Specchia, Salvatore Geraci and Walter Ricciardi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2015 15:2

    Content type: Research article

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  38. There are an estimated 35 million unregistered children in Indonesia. To understand ways to best leverage existing health system-related resources and ensure greater protective measures for these vulnerable ch...

    Authors: Michelle Jackson, Putu Duff, Santi Kusumanigrum and Lindsay Stark

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:306

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In spite of global decline in under-five mortality, the goal of achieving MDG 4 still remains largely unattained in low and middle income countries as the year 2015 closes-in. To accelerate the pace of mortali...

    Authors: Edmund Wedam Kanmiki, Ayaga A Bawah, Isaiah Agorinya, Fabian S Achana, John Koku Awoonor-williams, Abraham R Oduro, James F Phillips and James Akazili

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:24

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understand...

    Authors: Muzdalifat Abeid, Projestine Muganyizi, Pia Olsson, Elisabeth Darj and Pia Axemo

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:23

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In the context of a generalized epidemic and criminalization of homosexuality, men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi have a disproportionate burden of HIV compared to other adults. Past research has docume...

    Authors: Andrea L Wirtz, Dunker Kamba, Vincent Jumbe, Gift Trapence, Rehana Gubin, Eric Umar, Susanne K Strömdahl, Chris Beyrer and Stefan D Baral

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:20

    Content type: Research article

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  42. An estimated 863 million people–a third of the world’s urban population–live in slums, yet there is little information on the disease burden in these settings, particularly regarding chronic preventable diseases.

    Authors: Kristen Heitzinger, Silvia M Montano, Stephen E Hawes, Jorge O Alarcón and Joseph R Zunt

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:19

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Myanmar/Burma has received increased development and humanitarian assistance since the election in November 2010. Monitoring the impact of foreign assistance and economic development on health and human rights...

    Authors: Parveen K Parmar, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Linda S Smith, Saw Nay Htoo, Sai Laeng, Aye Lwin, Mahn Mahn, Cynthia Maung, Daniel Reh, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Thomas Lee and Adam K Richards

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:15

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to approximately 55 million orphaned children. The growing orphan crisis has overwhelmed many communities and has weakened the ability of extended families to meet traditional care-t...

    Authors: Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Allan Kamanda, Lukoye Atwoli, Samuel Ayaya, Rachel Vreeman, Winstone Nyandiko, Peter Gisore, Julius Koech and Paula Braitstein

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:9

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The one-child policy introduced in China in 1979 has led to far-reaching changes in socio-demographic characteristics. Under this policy regime, each household has few children. This study aims to describe the...

    Authors: Jing Hua, Zhe Mu, Bright I Nwaru, Guixiong Gu, Wei Meng and Zhuochun Wu

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:8

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Development policymakers and child-care service providers are committed to improving the educational opportunities of the 153 million orphans worldwide. Nevertheless, the relationship between orphanhood and ed...

    Authors: Maya Escueta, Kathryn Whetten, Jan Ostermann and Karen O’Donnell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:6

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self so...

    Authors: Eshetu Girma, Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler, Norbert Müller, Sandra Dehning, Guenter Froeschl and Markos Tesfaye

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:2

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to red...

    Authors: Jhumka Gupta, Kathryn L Falb, Heidi Lehmann, Denise Kpebo, Ziming Xuan, Mazeda Hossain, Cathy Zimmerman, Charlotte Watts and Jeannie Annan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:46

    Content type: Research article

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  49. In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despi...

    Authors: Alexia Sabbe, Halima Oulami, Wahiba Zekraoui, Halima Hikmat, Marleen Temmerman and Els Leye

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:43

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Some studies show orphanhood to be associated with increased sexual risk-taking while others have not established this relationship, but have found factors other than orphanhood as predictors of sexual risk be...

    Authors: Milka Juma, Jane Alaii, L Kay Bartholomew, Ian Askew and Bart Van den Born

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:32

    Content type: Research article

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