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  1. Maternal mortality and morbidity remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) represents an underestimated and unrecognised impediment to optimal maternal h...

    Authors: Karoline Kragelund Nielsen, Maximilian de Courten and Anil Kapur

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:33

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The Hijra is a distinct type of gender role in South Asia where men act like women. This group of people is socially excluded by the general community, in terms of attainment of an opportunity for a socially prod...

    Authors: Muhammad Ahmed Abdullah, Zeeshan Basharat, Bilal Kamal, Nargis Yousaf Sattar, Zahra Fatima Hassan, Asghar Dil Jan and Anum Shafqat

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:32

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right t...

    Authors: Rachel Hammonds, Gorik Ooms and Wouter Vandenhole

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:31

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Accelerating progress towards universal coverage in African countries calls for concrete actions that reinforce social health protection through establishment of sustainable health financing mechanisms. In ord...

    Authors: Laurent Musango, Juliet Nabyonga Orem, Riku Elovainio and Joses Kirigia

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:30

    Content type: Debate

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  5. The health and well-being of widows in India is an important but neglected issue of public health and women’s rights. We investigate the lives of Indian women as they become widows, focussing on the causes of the...

    Authors: Katia Sarla Mohindra, Slim Haddad and Delampady Narayana

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:28

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Tanzania is experiencing acute shortages of Health Workers (HWs), a situation which has forced health managers, especially in the underserved districts, to hastily cope with health workers’ shortages by adopti...

    Authors: Michael A Munga, Stella P Kilima, Prince Pius Mutalemwa, William J Kisoka and Mwelecele N Malecela

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:27

    Content type: Research article

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  7. It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression o...

    Authors: Ananthan Parameswaran and Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:26

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Globally, extending financial protection and equitable access to health services to those outside the formal sector employment is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage. While some favour contribut...

    Authors: Gilbert Abotisem Abiiro and Di McIntyre

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:25

    Content type: Debate

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  9. Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the contine...

    Authors: Wanga Zembe-Mkabile, Tanya Doherty, David Sanders, Debra Jackson, Mickey Chopra, Sonja Swanevelder, Carl Lombard and Rebecca Surender

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:24

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants reg...

    Authors: Tinzar Naing, Alan Geater and Petchawan Pungrassami

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:22

    Content type: Research article

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  11. As part of a comprehensive study on the primary health care system in Iraq, we sought to explore primary care providers’ perspectives about the main problems influencing the provision of primary care services ...

    Authors: Nazar P Shabila, Namir G Al-Tawil, Tariq S Al-Hadithi, Egbert Sondorp and Kelsey Vaughan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:21

    Content type: Research article

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  12. An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken.

    Authors: Ram B Rana, Rabindra Ghimire, Mahendra B Shah, Tirtha Kumal, Elise Whitley and Ian A Baker

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:20

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five accounting for 1.8 million deaths yearly. Despite global efforts to reduce diarrhoea mortality through promotion of proper case management,...

    Authors: Jenny Löfgren, Wenjing Tao, Elin Larsson, Francis Kyakulaga and Birger C Forsberg

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:19

    Content type: Research article

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  14. About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measure...

    Authors: Johan Borg, Stig Larsson, Per-Olof Östergren, ASM Atiqur Rahman, Nazmul Bari and AHM Noman Khan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:18

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and even more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Iran is a LMIC and lacks information regarding injury for program and policy purpose...

    Authors: Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Alexandra LC Martiniuk, Mahdi Mohammadi, Mahdieh Rad, Fatemeh Sargazi, Khodadad Sheykhzadeh, Seddighe Jelodarzadeh and Fatemeh Karimzadeh

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:17

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial r...

    Authors: Joses Muthuri Kirigia, Eyob Zere and James Akazili

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:16

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing So...

    Authors: Benjamin Mason Meier, Caitlin Pardue and Leslie London

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:15

    Content type: Research article

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  18. There has been increasing focus on the role of health systems in low and middle-income countries. Despite this, very little evidence exists on how best to build health systems program and research capacity in ...

    Authors: Joel Negin, Alexandra Martiniuk, Chris Morgan, Philip Davies and Anthony Zwi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:14

    Content type: Correspondence

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  19. Most HIV/AIDS infections in women occur at a younger age, during the first few years after sexual debut. This study was therefore designed to assess factors associated with the knowledge and utilization of the...

    Authors: Olorunfemi E Amoran, Omotayo F Salami and Francis A Oluwole

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:13

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Although leprosy was eliminated globally in 2000, the disease continues to be the significant cause of peripheral neuropathy, disability and disfigurement in some developing countries. However, recent populati...

    Authors: Kelias P Msyamboza, Leonard R Mawaya, Hudson W Kubwalo, David Ng’oma, Moses Liabunya, Sunganani Manjolo, Pilirani P Msiska and Wilson W Somba

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:12

    Content type: Research article

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  21. A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria ba...

    Authors: Solomon Nwaka, Alexander Ochem, Dominique Besson, Bernadette Ramirez, Foluke Fakorede, Sanaa Botros, Uford Inyang, Charles Mgone, Ivan Adae-Mensah, Victor Konde, Barthelemy Nyasse, Blessed Okole, Anastasia Guantai, Glaudina Loots, Peter Atadja, Peter Ndumbe…

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:11

    Content type: Correspondence

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  22. Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce vaginal transmission of HIV to men. While community acceptability is important in a countries preparedness to introduce MC, it is equally important to map contem...

    Authors: Angela Kelly, Martha Kupul, Richard Nake Trumb, Herick Aeno, James Neo, Lisa Fitzgerald, Peter S Hill, John M Kaldor, Peter Siba and Andrew Vallely

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:10

    Content type: Research article

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  23. An understanding of the perception of paediatricians as key stakeholders in child healthcare delivery and the degree of congruence with current investment priorities is crucial in accelerating progress towards...

    Authors: Bolajoko O Olusanya, Chinyere V Ezeaka, Ekundayo K Ajayi-Obe, Mariya Mukhtar-Yola and Gabriel E Ofovwe

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:9

    Content type: Research article

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  24. During a period of evolving international consensus on how to engage communities in research, facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention research were explored in a rural plantation community...

    Authors: Emmanuel Kiawi, Eleanor McLellan-Lemal, Jembia Mosoko, Kata Chillag and Pratima L Raghunathan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:8

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are co...

    Authors: Sonal Singh, Sunil Babu Pant, Suben Dhakal, Subash Pokhrel and Luke C Mullany

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:7

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Whether scale-up of HIV prevention and care will reduce negative attitudes and discriminatory practices towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) is uncertain. An HIV knowledge and attitude survey was conduc...

    Authors: Alan R Lifson, Workneh Demissie, Alemayehu Tadesse, Kassu Ketema, Randy May, Bereket Yakob, Meka Metekia, Lucy Slater and Tibebe Shenie

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:6

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, ...

    Authors: Maryse Bouchard, Jillian C Kohler, James Orbinski and Andrew Howard

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:5

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Somali migrants fleeing the civil war in their country face punishing journeys, the loss of homes, possessions, and bereavement. On arrival in the host country they encounter poverty, hostility, and residentia...

    Authors: Kamaldeep Bhui, Salaad Mohamud, Nasir Warfa, Sarah Curtis, Stephen Stansfeld and Tom Craig

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:4

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The National Health Act, No 61, 2003 in South Africa is the first effort made by the government to protect health-related research participants under law. Implemented on March 1, 2012, the law mandates active ...

    Authors: Melanie Zuch, Amanda J Mason-Jones, Catherine Mathews and Lesley Henley

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:3

    Content type: Debate

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  30. There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs). The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in ...

    Authors: Mia Westcott, Alexandra LC Martiniuk, Robert A Fowler, Neill KJ Adhikari and Tenneth Dalipanda

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012 12:1

    Content type: Research article

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  31. After many years of sanctions and conflict, Iraq is rebuilding its health system, with a strong emphasis on the traditional hospital-based services. A network exists of public sector hospitals and clinics, as ...

    Authors: Gilbert Burnham, Connie Hoe, Yuen Wai Hung, Agron Ferati, Allen Dyer, Thamer Al Hifi, Rabia Aboud and Tariq Hasoon

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:15

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one inte...

    Authors: Rose Ndakala Oronje, Joanna Crichton, Sally Theobald, Nana Oye Lithur and Latifat Ibisomi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  33. In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have al...

    Authors: Hayley MacGregor and Elizabeth Mills

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  34. There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Interna...

    Authors: Cheryl Overs and Kate Hawkins

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  35. This article discusses what happens when normative ‘global’ discourses of rights and individuated sexual identity confront the messiness of ‘local’ realities. It considers the tensions that emerge when the rel...

    Authors: Dina M Siddiqi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  36. Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: ...

    Authors: Jashodhara Dasgupta

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  37. In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and poli...

    Authors: Sabina Faiz Rashid

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  38. Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights...

    Authors: Chi-Chi Undie and Chimaraoke O Izugbara

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  39. Village AIDS committees (VAC) were formed by the Tanzanian government in 2003 to provide HIV education to their communities. However, their potential has not been realised due to their limited knowledge and mi...

    Authors: Elizabeth J Epsley, Benjamin Nhandi, Alison Wringe, Mark Urassa and Jim Todd

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:14

    Content type: Research article

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  40. As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health s...

    Authors: Inez Mikkelsen-Lopez, Kaspar Wyss and Don de Savigny

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:13

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  41. Nearly 3 million people in resource-poor countries receive antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, yet millions more require treatment. Key barriers to treatment scale up are shortages of trained health...

    Authors: Sumeet Sodhi, Hastings Banda, Damson Kathyola, Barry Burciul, Sandy Thompson, Martias Joshua, Eric Bateman, Lara Fairall, Alexandra Martiniuk, Ruth Cornick, Gill Faris, Beverley Draper, Martha Mondiwa, Egnat Katengeza, Lifah Sanudi, Merrick Zwarenstein…

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  42. Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as r...

    Authors: Valéry Ridde, Maurice Yaogo, Yamba Kafando, Kadidiatou Kadio, Moctar Ouedraogo, Marou Sanfo, Norbert Coulibaly, Abel Bicaba and Slim Haddad

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  43. The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean h...

    Authors: Donald C Cole, Fadya Orozco T, Willy Pradel, Jovanny Suquillo, Xavier Mera, Aura Chacon, Gordon Prain, Susitha Wanigaratne and Jessica Leah

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  44. A key aim of countries with high maternal mortality rates is to increase availability of competent maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. Yet, despite significant investment, countries with the ...

    Authors: Zubia Mumtaz, Sarah Salway, Laura Shanner, Afshan Bhatti and Lory Laing

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2