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  1. After many years of sanctions and conflict, Iraq is rebuilding its health system, with a strong emphasis on the traditional hospital-based services. A network exists of public sector hospitals and clinics, as ...

    Authors: Gilbert Burnham, Connie Hoe, Yuen Wai Hung, Agron Ferati, Allen Dyer, Thamer Al Hifi, Rabia Aboud and Tariq Hasoon

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:15

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one inte...

    Authors: Rose Ndakala Oronje, Joanna Crichton, Sally Theobald, Nana Oye Lithur and Latifat Ibisomi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  3. In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have al...

    Authors: Hayley MacGregor and Elizabeth Mills

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  4. There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Interna...

    Authors: Cheryl Overs and Kate Hawkins

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  5. This article discusses what happens when normative ‘global’ discourses of rights and individuated sexual identity confront the messiness of ‘local’ realities. It considers the tensions that emerge when the rel...

    Authors: Dina M Siddiqi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  6. Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: ...

    Authors: Jashodhara Dasgupta

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  7. In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and poli...

    Authors: Sabina Faiz Rashid

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  8. Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights...

    Authors: Chi-Chi Undie and Chimaraoke O Izugbara

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 3):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 3

  9. Village AIDS committees (VAC) were formed by the Tanzanian government in 2003 to provide HIV education to their communities. However, their potential has not been realised due to their limited knowledge and mi...

    Authors: Elizabeth J Epsley, Benjamin Nhandi, Alison Wringe, Mark Urassa and Jim Todd

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health s...

    Authors: Inez Mikkelsen-Lopez, Kaspar Wyss and Don de Savigny

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:13

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  11. Improved availability of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is intended to benefit all eligible HIV-infected patients; however in reality antiretroviral services are mainly offered in urban hospitals...

    Authors: Walter Kipp, Joseph Konde-Lule, Tom Rubaale, Joa Okech-Ojony, Arif Alibhai and Duncan L Saunders

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  12. Nearly 3 million people in resource-poor countries receive antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, yet millions more require treatment. Key barriers to treatment scale up are shortages of trained health...

    Authors: Sumeet Sodhi, Hastings Banda, Damson Kathyola, Barry Burciul, Sandy Thompson, Martias Joshua, Eric Bateman, Lara Fairall, Alexandra Martiniuk, Ruth Cornick, Gill Faris, Beverley Draper, Martha Mondiwa, Egnat Katengeza, Lifah Sanudi, Merrick Zwarenstein…

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  13. Nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCD) are rising quickly in developing countries, and the nutrition transition is a major contributor. Low-income countries have not been spared. Health issues related to nu...

    Authors: Hélène Delisle, Victoire Agueh and Benjamin Fayomi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  14. Systems to exempt the indigent from user fees have been put in place to prevent the worst-off from being excluded from health care services for lack of funds. Yet the implementation of these mechanisms is as r...

    Authors: Valéry Ridde, Maurice Yaogo, Yamba Kafando, Kadidiatou Kadio, Moctar Ouedraogo, Marou Sanfo, Norbert Coulibaly, Abel Bicaba and Slim Haddad

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  15. Globalization has been accompanied by the rapid spread of infectious diseases, and further strain on working conditions for health workers globally. Post-SARS, Canadian occupational health and infection contro...

    Authors: Annalee Yassi, Elizabeth A Bryce, Jaime Breilh, Marie-Claude Lavoie, Lindiwe Ndelu, Karen Lockhart and Jerry Spiegel

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S8

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  16. The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to...

    Authors: Martin Forde, Karen Morrison, Eric Dewailly, Neela Badrie and Lyndon Robertson

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  17. The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean h...

    Authors: Donald C Cole, Fadya Orozco T, Willy Pradel, Jovanny Suquillo, Xavier Mera, Aura Chacon, Gordon Prain, Susitha Wanigaratne and Jessica Leah

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  18. The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capaciti...

    Authors: Jerry M Spiegel, Jaime Breilh, Efrain Beltran, Jorge Parra, Fernanda Solis, Annalee Yassi, Alejandro Rojas, Elena Orrego, Bonnie Henry, William R Bowie, Laurie Pearce, Juan Gaibor, Patricio Velasquez, Miriam Concepcion and Margot Parkes

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  19. A key aim of countries with high maternal mortality rates is to increase availability of competent maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. Yet, despite significant investment, countries with the ...

    Authors: Zubia Mumtaz, Sarah Salway, Laura Shanner, Afshan Bhatti and Lory Laing

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  20. Inadequate public action in vulnerable communities is a major constraint for the health of poor and marginalized groups in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The south Indian state of Kerala, known for r...

    Authors: Slim Haddad, Delampady Narayana and KS Mohindra

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  21. Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot ca...

    Authors: Joanne Csete, Karyn Kaplan, Kanna Hayashi, Nadia Fairbairn, Paisan Suwannawong, Ruth Zhang, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Serbia has proclaimed access to healthcare as a human right. In a context wherein the Roma population are disadvantaged, the aim of this study was to assess whether the Roma population are able to effectively ...

    Authors: Leanne Idzerda, Orvill Adams, Jonathan Patrick, Ted Schrecker and Peter Tugwell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on ...

    Authors: Nicholas Midzi, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Davison Sangweme, Noah H Paul, Godfrey Makware, Munyaradzi P Mapingure, Kimberly C Brouwer, James Mudzori, Gibson Hlerema, Vivian Chadukura, Francisca Mutapi, Nirbhay Kumar and Takafira Mduluza

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings....

    Authors: Shannon A McMahon, Peter J Winch, Bethany A Caruso, Alfredo F Obure, Emily A Ogutu, Imelda A Ochari and Richard D Rheingans

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. There is a global consensus towards universal access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services consequent to the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy. However, to benefit from these services,...

    Authors: Barnabas N Njozing, Kerstin E Edin, Miguel San Sebastián and Anna-Karin Hurtig

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to con...

    Authors: Françoise Duroch, Melissa McRae and Rebecca F Grais

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nut...

    Authors: Joses M Kirigia, Benjamin M Nganda, Chris N Mwikisa and Bernardino Cardoso

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for...

    Authors: Suresh Joshi, Padam Simkhada and Gordon J Prescott

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future ...

    Authors: Cheryl MR Sulaiman-Hill and Sandra C Thompson

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) to be competitive and sustainable.

    Authors: Olico Okui, Elizabeth Ayebare, Rose Nabirye Chalo, George W Pariyo, Sara Groves and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  31. Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play...

    Authors: Freddie Ssengooba, Lynn Atuyambe, Suzanne N Kiwanuka, Prasanthi Puvanachandra, Nancy Glass and Adnan A Hyder

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  32. Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS). Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities...

    Authors: Ziadah Nankinga, Paul Kutyabami, Dan Kibuule, Joan Kalyango, Sara Groves, Robert C Bollinger and Celestino Obua

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  33. Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services re...

    Authors: Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Peter Waiswa, M Hafizur Rahman, Fred Makumbi, Noah Kiwanuka, Olico Okui, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, John Bua, Aloysius Mutebi, Gorette Nalwadda, David Serwadda, George W Pariyo and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  34. Although a number of intermediate transport initiatives have been used in some developing countries, available evidence reveals a dearth of local knowledge on the effect of these rural informal transport mecha...

    Authors: George W Pariyo, Chrispus Mayora, Olico Okui, Freddie Ssengooba, David H Peters, David Serwadda, Henry Lucas, Gerald Bloom, M Hafizur Rahman and Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  35. HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern in Uganda. There is widespread consensus that weak health systems hamper the effective provision of HIV/AIDS services. In recent years, the ways in which HIV/AIDS-focu...

    Authors: Toru Matsubayashi, Yukari C Manabe, Allan Etonu, Nambusi Kyegombe, Alex Muganzi, Alex Coutinho and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  36. Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In additio...

    Authors: Joyce Nankumbi, Sara Groves, Elli Leontsini, Nambusi Kyegombe, Alex Coutinho and Yuka Manabe

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  37. Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students c...

    Authors: Irene B Kizza, Joshua Tugumisirize, Raymond Tweheyo, Speciosa Mbabali, Arabat Kasangaki, Edith Nshimye, Juliet Sekandi, Sara Groves and Caitlin E Kennedy

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  38. Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the succes...

    Authors: Scovia N Mbalinda, Colin M Plover, Gilbert Burnham, Dan Kaye, Andrew Mwanika, Hussein Oria, Isaac Okullo, Wilson Muhwezi and Sara Groves

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  39. Training of health professionals can be deliberately structured to enhance rural recruitment by exposing the trainees to the realities of rural life and practice through Community-Based Education and Service (...

    Authors: Andrew Mwanika, Isaac Okullo, Dan K Kaye, Wilson Muhwezi, Lynn Atuyambe, Rose C Nabirye, Sara Groves, Scovia Mbalinda, Gilbert Burnham, Larry W Chang, Hussein Oria and Nelson Sewankambo

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  40. Community-based education (CBE) is part of the training curriculum for most health workers in Uganda. Most programs have a stated purpose of strengthening clinical skills, medical knowledge, communication skil...

    Authors: Dan Kaye, Andrew Mwanika, Gilbert Burnham, Larry W Chang, Scovia N Mbalinda, Isaac Okullo, Rose C Nabirye, Wilson Muhwezi, Hussein Oria, Stephen Kijjambu, Lynn Atuyambe and Warren Aryeija

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  41. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equippe...

    Authors: Sarah Kiguli, Rhona Baingana, Ligia Paina, David Mafigiri, Sara Groves, Godfrey Katende, Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Juliet Kiguli, Moses Galukande, Mayega Roy, Robert Bollinger and George Pariyo

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  42. “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively ...

    Authors: George Pariyo, David Serwadda, Nelson K Sewankambo, Sara Groves, Robert C Bollinger and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  43. The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countrie...

    Authors: Rachel Whetten, Lynne Messer, Jan Ostermann, Kathryn Whetten, Brian Wells Pence, Megan Buckner, Nathan Thielman and Karen O'Donnell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:1

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: