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  1. Improved availability of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is intended to benefit all eligible HIV-infected patients; however in reality antiretroviral services are mainly offered in urban hospitals...

    Authors: Walter Kipp, Joseph Konde-Lule, Tom Rubaale, Joa Okech-Ojony, Arif Alibhai and Duncan L Saunders

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  2. Nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCD) are rising quickly in developing countries, and the nutrition transition is a major contributor. Low-income countries have not been spared. Health issues related to nu...

    Authors: Hélène Delisle, Victoire Agueh and Benjamin Fayomi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  3. Globalization has been accompanied by the rapid spread of infectious diseases, and further strain on working conditions for health workers globally. Post-SARS, Canadian occupational health and infection contro...

    Authors: Annalee Yassi, Elizabeth A Bryce, Jaime Breilh, Marie-Claude Lavoie, Lindiwe Ndelu, Karen Lockhart and Jerry Spiegel

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S8

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  4. The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to...

    Authors: Martin Forde, Karen Morrison, Eric Dewailly, Neela Badrie and Lyndon Robertson

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  5. The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capaciti...

    Authors: Jerry M Spiegel, Jaime Breilh, Efrain Beltran, Jorge Parra, Fernanda Solis, Annalee Yassi, Alejandro Rojas, Elena Orrego, Bonnie Henry, William R Bowie, Laurie Pearce, Juan Gaibor, Patricio Velasquez, Miriam Concepcion and Margot Parkes

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  6. Inadequate public action in vulnerable communities is a major constraint for the health of poor and marginalized groups in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The south Indian state of Kerala, known for r...

    Authors: Slim Haddad, Delampady Narayana and KS Mohindra

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 2):S3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 2

  7. Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot ca...

    Authors: Joanne Csete, Karyn Kaplan, Kanna Hayashi, Nadia Fairbairn, Paisan Suwannawong, Ruth Zhang, Evan Wood and Thomas Kerr

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Serbia has proclaimed access to healthcare as a human right. In a context wherein the Roma population are disadvantaged, the aim of this study was to assess whether the Roma population are able to effectively ...

    Authors: Leanne Idzerda, Orvill Adams, Jonathan Patrick, Ted Schrecker and Peter Tugwell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on ...

    Authors: Nicholas Midzi, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Davison Sangweme, Noah H Paul, Godfrey Makware, Munyaradzi P Mapingure, Kimberly C Brouwer, James Mudzori, Gibson Hlerema, Vivian Chadukura, Francisca Mutapi, Nirbhay Kumar and Takafira Mduluza

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings....

    Authors: Shannon A McMahon, Peter J Winch, Bethany A Caruso, Alfredo F Obure, Emily A Ogutu, Imelda A Ochari and Richard D Rheingans

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. There is a global consensus towards universal access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services consequent to the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy. However, to benefit from these services,...

    Authors: Barnabas N Njozing, Kerstin E Edin, Miguel San Sebastián and Anna-Karin Hurtig

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to con...

    Authors: Françoise Duroch, Melissa McRae and Rebecca F Grais

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nut...

    Authors: Joses M Kirigia, Benjamin M Nganda, Chris N Mwikisa and Bernardino Cardoso

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for...

    Authors: Suresh Joshi, Padam Simkhada and Gordon J Prescott

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  15. As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future ...

    Authors: Cheryl MR Sulaiman-Hill and Sandra C Thompson

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) to be competitive and sustainable.

    Authors: Olico Okui, Elizabeth Ayebare, Rose Nabirye Chalo, George W Pariyo, Sara Groves and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  17. Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play...

    Authors: Freddie Ssengooba, Lynn Atuyambe, Suzanne N Kiwanuka, Prasanthi Puvanachandra, Nancy Glass and Adnan A Hyder

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  18. Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS). Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities...

    Authors: Ziadah Nankinga, Paul Kutyabami, Dan Kibuule, Joan Kalyango, Sara Groves, Robert C Bollinger and Celestino Obua

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  19. Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services re...

    Authors: Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Peter Waiswa, M Hafizur Rahman, Fred Makumbi, Noah Kiwanuka, Olico Okui, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, John Bua, Aloysius Mutebi, Gorette Nalwadda, David Serwadda, George W Pariyo and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  20. Although a number of intermediate transport initiatives have been used in some developing countries, available evidence reveals a dearth of local knowledge on the effect of these rural informal transport mecha...

    Authors: George W Pariyo, Chrispus Mayora, Olico Okui, Freddie Ssengooba, David H Peters, David Serwadda, Henry Lucas, Gerald Bloom, M Hafizur Rahman and Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  21. HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern in Uganda. There is widespread consensus that weak health systems hamper the effective provision of HIV/AIDS services. In recent years, the ways in which HIV/AIDS-focu...

    Authors: Toru Matsubayashi, Yukari C Manabe, Allan Etonu, Nambusi Kyegombe, Alex Muganzi, Alex Coutinho and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  22. Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In additio...

    Authors: Joyce Nankumbi, Sara Groves, Elli Leontsini, Nambusi Kyegombe, Alex Coutinho and Yuka Manabe

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  23. Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students c...

    Authors: Irene B Kizza, Joshua Tugumisirize, Raymond Tweheyo, Speciosa Mbabali, Arabat Kasangaki, Edith Nshimye, Juliet Sekandi, Sara Groves and Caitlin E Kennedy

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  24. Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the succes...

    Authors: Scovia N Mbalinda, Colin M Plover, Gilbert Burnham, Dan Kaye, Andrew Mwanika, Hussein Oria, Isaac Okullo, Wilson Muhwezi and Sara Groves

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  25. Training of health professionals can be deliberately structured to enhance rural recruitment by exposing the trainees to the realities of rural life and practice through Community-Based Education and Service (...

    Authors: Andrew Mwanika, Isaac Okullo, Dan K Kaye, Wilson Muhwezi, Lynn Atuyambe, Rose C Nabirye, Sara Groves, Scovia Mbalinda, Gilbert Burnham, Larry W Chang, Hussein Oria and Nelson Sewankambo

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  26. Community-based education (CBE) is part of the training curriculum for most health workers in Uganda. Most programs have a stated purpose of strengthening clinical skills, medical knowledge, communication skil...

    Authors: Dan Kaye, Andrew Mwanika, Gilbert Burnham, Larry W Chang, Scovia N Mbalinda, Isaac Okullo, Rose C Nabirye, Wilson Muhwezi, Hussein Oria, Stephen Kijjambu, Lynn Atuyambe and Warren Aryeija

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  27. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equippe...

    Authors: Sarah Kiguli, Rhona Baingana, Ligia Paina, David Mafigiri, Sara Groves, Godfrey Katende, Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Juliet Kiguli, Moses Galukande, Mayega Roy, Robert Bollinger and George Pariyo

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  28. “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively ...

    Authors: George Pariyo, David Serwadda, Nelson K Sewankambo, Sara Groves, Robert C Bollinger and David H Peters

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 11 Supplement 1

  29. The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countrie...

    Authors: Rachel Whetten, Lynne Messer, Jan Ostermann, Kathryn Whetten, Brian Wells Pence, Megan Buckner, Nathan Thielman and Karen O'Donnell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011 11:1

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementi...

    Authors: Hassan Masum, Justin Chakma, Ken Simiyu, Wesley Ronoh, Abdallah S Daar and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  31. Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into ...

    Authors: Kumar Perampaladas, Hassan Masum, Andrew Kapoor, Ronak Shah, Abdallah S Daar and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  32. A traditional pathway for developing new health products begins with public research institutes generating new knowledge, and ends with the private sector translating this knowledge into new ventures. But whil...

    Authors: Ken Simiyu, Hassan Masum, Justin Chakma and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  33. Biopiracy – the use of a people’s long-established medical knowledge without acknowledgement or compensation – has been a disturbing historical reality and exacerbates the global rich-poor divide. Bioprospecti...

    Authors: Manveen Puri, Hassan Masum, Jennifer Heys and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  34. Since 2000, R&D financing for global health has increased significantly, with innovative proposals for further increases. However, although venture capital (VC) funding has fostered life sciences businesses ac...

    Authors: Hassan Masum and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  35. Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the trad...

    Authors: Justin Chakma, Hassan Masum and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  36. Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distributi...

    Authors: Hassan Masum, Ronak Shah, Karl Schroeder, Abdallah S Daar and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  37. Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local...

    Authors: Sheila Kamunyori, Sara Al-Bader, Nelson Sewankambo, Peter A Singer and Abdallah S Daar

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  38. Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status...

    Authors: Ronak Shah, Peter A Singer and Abdallah S Daar

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  39. This paper describes and analyses Rwanda’s science-based health product ‘innovation system’, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation and good practice. We use an innovation systems framework, which take...

    Authors: Kenneth Simiyu, Abdallah S Daar, Mike Hughes and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  40. Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity ...

    Authors: Sara Al-Bader, Abdallah S Daar and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  41. In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. B...

    Authors: Sara Al-Bader, Hassan Masum, Ken Simiyu, Abdallah S Daar and Peter A Singer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10(Suppl 1):S1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 10 Supplement 1

  42. The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factor...

    Authors: Sheri A Denslow, Jess Edwards, Jennifer Horney, Rodolfo Peña, Daniel Wurzelmann and Douglas Morgan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10:30

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. In many low and middle income countries, the private sector is increasingly becoming an important source of health care, filling gaps where no or little public health care is available. However, knowledge on t...

    Authors: Joseph Konde-Lule, Sheba N Gitta, Anne Lindfors, Sam Okuonzi, Virgil ON Onama and Birger C Forsberg

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10:29

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008) which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of...

    Authors: Eugene Kinyanda, Seggane Musisi, Christine Biryabarema, Isaac Ezati, Henry Oboke, Ruth Ojiambo-Ochieng, Juliet Were-Oguttu, Jonathan Levin, Heiner Grosskurth and James Walugembe

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10:28

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. National health accounts provide useful information to understand the functioning of a health financing system. This article attempts to present a profile of the health system financing in Malawi using data fr...

    Authors: Eyob Zere, Oladapo Walker, Joses Kirigia, Felicitas Zawaira, Francis Magombo and Edward Kataika

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010 10:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: