Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariable associations between child and caregiver characteristics, work status and labor

From: Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

   Any work1 <21 hrs2 22-27 hrs2 Labor2
Child gender Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Female 2.23** 2.27** 2.46** 2.06**
   [1.57 - 3.18] [1.57 - 3.28] [1.37 - 4.43] [1.23 - 3.46]
Relationship Biological child 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Other 1.54 1.51 2.34 1.23
   [0.92 - 2.57] [0.91 - 2.52] [0.91 - 6.04] [0.60 - 2.53]
School enrollment Enrolled 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Not enrolled 2.02 1.71 1.94 4.04*
   [0.94 - 4.35] [0.82 - 3.56] [0.48 - 7.86] [1.37 - 11.94]
Caregiver reported Very good or good 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
health of the child   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Fair 1.27 1.28 1.88 1.05
   [0.75 - 2.16] [0.74 - 2.21] [0.80 - 4.42] [0.52 - 2.11]
  Poor or very poor 0.53 0.49 0.64 0.55
   [0.26 - 1.07] [0.24 - 1.03] [0.18 - 2.20] [0.22 - 1.37]
Child age 6-7 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  8-10 4.05** 3.55** 6.84** 6.70**
   [2.68 - 6.13] [2.33 - 5.41] [2.79 - 16.78] [3.24 - 13.84]
  11-12 4.80** 4.09** 10.87** 7.17**
   [2.90 - 7.92] [2.39 - 6.98] [4.11 - 28.73] [3.26 - 15.77]
Caregiver gender Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Female 1.2 1.34 1.06 0.79
   [0.73 - 1.97] [0.79 - 2.28] [0.44 - 2.56] [0.35 - 1.77]
Caregiver age 18-35 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  36-55 0.68 0.67 0.57 0.77
   [0.46 - 1.02] [0.44 - 1.02] [0.28 - 1.13] [0.42 - 1.42]
  56+ 0.48* 0.45* 0.35 0.66
   [0.24 - 0.94] [0.22 - 0.94] [0.12 - 1.02] [0.26 - 1.68]
Marital status Married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Widowed 1 1.13 1.22 0.51
   [0.58 - 1.73] [0.66 - 1.94] [0.49 - 3.04] [0.25 - 1.05]
  Other 1.01 1.14 0.91 0.66
   [0.54 - 1.87] [0.59 - 2.21] [0.26 - 3.26] [0.24 - 1.81]
Caregiver health Very good or good 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Fair 1.51 1.56 1.79 1.23
   [0.97 - 2.36] [0.97 - 2.52] [0.81 - 3.96] [0.65 - 2.32]
  Poor or very poor 0.85 0.83 0.87 0.97
   [0.50 - 1.47] [0.48 - 1.46] [0.34 - 2.23] [0.44 - 2.10]
Caregiver education Less than 7 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  7 years or more 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.06
   [0.97 - 1.09] [0.96 - 1.08] [0.92 - 1.12] [0.97 - 1.16]
Earning an income Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  No 1.12 0.95 1.52 2.26*
   [0.72 - 1.76] [0.59 - 1.52] [0.67 - 3.44] [1.20 - 4.23]
Wealth index   0.55** 0.59** 0.63 0.36**
   [0.39 - 0.78] [0.42 - 0.83] [0.36 - 1.09] [0.22 - 0.59]
# of children caring for 1.04 1.05 1.06 0.96
   [0.94 - 1.16] [0.94 - 1.17] [0.91 - 1.25] [0.83 - 1.12]
Location Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   (reference) (reference) (reference) (reference)
  Rural 3.12** 2.76** 3.91** 3.88**
   [1.98 - 4.90] [1.74 - 4.36] [1.94 - 7.89] [2.12 - 7.10]
  1. *, **, and *** denote significance at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels, respectively
  2. 1 relative to no work; estimates from a logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects
  3. 2 relative to no work; estimates from a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for site fixed effects