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Table 3 Variables associated with IPV by type among women during the 12 months prior to the survey

From: Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique

Dependent variables Psychological aggressionm Physical assaultm Sexual coercionm Physical assault with injurym N = 1040
N = 1265 N = 1271 N = 1258
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Independent variables     
Demographics/socio-economics
(Block 1)
  Marital statusa     
  Married/cohabitant 1.28 (0.82–2.01) 1.19 (0.77–1.85) 0.80 (0.55–1.15) 1.07 (0.66–1.72)
  Divorced/Separated 0.34 (0.17–0.69) 0.99 (0.45–2.17) 0.40 (0.22–0.71) 1.88 (0.92–3.82)
  Widow 0.65 (0.28–1.51) 1.52 (0.61–3.82) 0.46 (0.21–1.03) 0.85 (0.33–2.17)
  Singlec 1 1 1 1
Children at homea NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Yes     2.69 (1.51–4.79)
  Noc     1
Housinga NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Non-conventionald     1.12 (0.58–2.16)
  Conventionalc, e     1
Educationa   NA1 NA1 NA1
  Lowf 2.32 (0.92–5.83)    
  Middleg 3.17 (1.31–7.64)    
  Highh 3.33 (1.27–8.73)    
  Cannot read/writec 1    
Occupational statusa NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Blue-collar worker     0.82 (0.14–4.75)
  Low white-collar worker     0.66 (0.09–4.86)
  Inter/high white-collar worker     0.94 (0.14–6.23)
  Student/otherc     1
Socio-economic status a NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Work for othersi     0.60 (0.11–3.28)
  Liberal/own businessj     0.85 (0.15–4.78)
  Domestic/otherk     1.70 (0.32–9.11)
  Studentc     1
Salary/financial resourcesa NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Yes     1.70 (0.92–3.16)
  Noc     1
Financial straina NA1 NA1 NA1  
  Yes     1.44 (0.83–2.49)
  Noc     1
R2 n (7.1) (2.1) (3.4) (7.5)
Life-style     
(Block 2)
BMIb NA1 NA1 NA1 1.01 (0.97 1.06)
Drinkinga     
  Yes 0.89 (0.60–1.33) 0.93 (0.62–1.40) 1.33 (0.95–1.87) 0.73 (0.49–1.10)
  N0c 1 1 1 1
Smokinga NA1 NA1   
  Yes    1.43 (0.65–3.14) 2.22 (0.92–5.33)
  Noc    1 1
R2 n (0.08) (1) (2.1) (2.3)
Controlling behaviours over partner     
(Block 3)
Controlb 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
R2 n (12.8) (16.2) (15) (12.6)
Controlling behaviours by partner     
(Block 4)
Controlb 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.04 (1.03–1.05)
R2 n (0.05) (4.1) (1) (6.6)
Perpetration     
(Block 5)
Psychological aggressiona NA1    
  Yes   4.04 (2.22–7.33) 1.89 (1.10–3.27) 1.95 (0.86–4.42)
  Noc   1 1 1
Physical assaulta   NA1   
  Yes 2.40 (1.22–4.74)   1.31 (0.88–1.94) 1.39 (0.89–2.16)
  Noc 1   1 1
Sexual coerciona    NA1  
  Yes 0.95 (0.53–1.71) 0.93 (0.57–1.52)   1.95 (1.22–3.11)
  Noc 1 1   
Physical assault with injurya     NA1
  Yes 0.89 (0.33–2.40) 3.56 (1.55–8.15) 2.02 (1.22–3.32)  
  Noc 1 1 1  
  R2 n (29.8) (42.5) (31.5) (25.3)
Victimization     
(Block 6)
Psychological aggressiona NA1    
  Yes   8.37 (4.36–16.06) 5.80 (3.24–10.39) 2.81 (1.08–7.35)
  Noc   1 1 1
Physical assaulta   NA1   
  Yes 13.63 (1.65–24.29)   3.71 (2.41–5.70) 10.61 (5.21–21.61)
  Noc 1   1 1
Sexual coerciona    NA1  
  Yes 8.23 (4.69–14.44) 4.33 (2.70–6.95)   1.14 (0.68–1.93)
  Noc 1 1   1
Physical assault with injurya     NA1
  Yes 4.25 (2.01–8.98) 7.54 (4.21–13.53) 1.11 (0.72–1.71)  
  Noc 1 1 1  
R2 n (19.9) (9.2) (6.5) (6.2)
Abuse as a child     
(Block 7)
Psychological abusea     
  Yes 1.40 (0.51–3.84) 0.94 (0.40–2.24) 1.56 (0.68–3.57) 0.42 (0.18–1.02)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Physical abusea     
  Yes 1.51 (1.01–2.25) 0.91 (0.60–1.36) 0.92 (0.65–1.28) 0.69 (0.46–1.04)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Sexual abusea     
  Yes 0.84 (0.30–2.34) 0.59 (0.22–1.64) 1.54 (0.66–3.57) 2.28 (0.99–5.21)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
Injurya     
  Yes 0.53 (0.22–1.27) 1.29 (0.58–2.88) 1.71 (0.86–3.41) 1.57 (0.80–3.07)
  Noc 1 1 1 1
R2 n (0.03) (0.01) (0.03) (0.09)
Total R2 (69.76) (75.11) (59.53) (60.59)
  1. a= category variables; b = continuous variables; c = comparison categories; d = e.g. own/rent housing in local materials such as wood; e = e.g. own/rent housing in cement; f = primary school/similar.
  2. g= secondary school/similar; h = university/similar; i = e.g. clerks; j = e.g. accountants; k = at home/unemployed; l = NA, non-applicable; m = different models are used in terms of independent variables; n = proportion of the total R2 explained by each block; R2 = Nagelkerke; OR, Odds Ratio; 95% CI = 95% Confidence interval.