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Table 3 Sensory function in the left foot of 15 falanga (F) and 17 no falanga (NF) torture victims and 14 healthy controls (C) (mean, SD, 95% CI, median and range for eight QST variables)

From: Sensory functions in the foot soles in victims of generalized torture, in victims also beaten under the feet (falanga) and in healthy controls – A blinded study using quantitative sensory testing

Left foot MDT CDT WDT CPT HPT PPT Wind-up mm Wind-up mm
  target force g °C °C °C °C kPa at 0.3 Hz at 1.0 Hz
  Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
  SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD
  CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI
  Median Median Median Median Median Median Median Median
  (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range)
Falanga n=15 33.98 24.4 43.5 20.6 47.6 239 6 26
  86.70 7.6 4.1 7.3 3.9 142 21 25
  −14.03–82.00 20.2–28.7 41.2–45.8 16.5–24.6 45.5–49.8 160–317 −7–19 11–42
  1.40 27.9 43.8 20.2 49.5 209 10 20
  (0.16–300.00) (0–30.1) (36.0–50.0) (0–29.1) (36.5–50.0) (78–488) (−50–35) (0–78)
No Falanga n=17 9.47 21.9 45.1 15.5 49.2 262 6 20
  16.17 7.5 3.5 9.6 1.4 179 12 16
  1.16–17.79 17.9–25.9 43.2–46.9 10.2–20.8 48.4–50.0 170–353 −1–12 12–29
  2.00 24.3 45.5 19.7 50.0 210 3 21
  (0.07–60.00) (0–29.4) (39.1–50.0) (0–27.8) (45.0–50.0) (94–745) (−14–29) (−1–50)
Controls n=14 0.33 28.0 40.9 21.1 47.0 456 17 27
  0.34 2.4 3.1 4.7 2.5 167 13 22
  0.14-0.53 26.6–29.3 39.1–42.7 18.3–23.8 45.5–48.4 359–552 10–24 14–39
  0.16 28.9 41.3 20.6 47.6 461 18 26
  (0.07–1.00) (21.6–30.2) (36.1–45.1) (9.2–27.9) (42.0–49.8) (208–783) (0–39) (−2–63)
ANOVA p-value 0.002 * 0.045 0.011 0.099 0.093 0.001 0.096 6.656
Tukeys post hoc test F/NF 0.919 * 0.518 0.444 0.172 0.278 0.918 0.996 0.725
F/C 0.003 * 0.314 0.143 0.983 0.794 0.003 0.163 1.000
NF/C 0.007 * 0.035 0.008 0.130 0.088 0.006 0.123 0.701
  1. MDT, mechanical detection threshold; g, gram; CDT, cold detection threshold; WDT, warm detection threshold; CPT, cold pain threshold; HPT, heat pain threshold; PPT, pressure pain threshold; kPa, kiloPascal; Wind-up mm at 0.3 Hz (mean pre/post difference in pain intensity VAS mm after wind-up stimulation at 0.3 Hz); Wind-up mm at 1.0 Hz (mean pre/post difference in pain intensity VAS mm after wind-up stimulation at 1.0 Hz); * calculated on log MDT.