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Table 4 Odds for perception of NHIS service provision to be ‘same’ or ‘better’ among men and women in Ghana, 2008

From: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme: a national level investigation of members’ perceptions of service provision

Independent variables Men Women
Wealth quintile Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Poorest (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Poorer .945 (.222) .921 (.236) .940 (.244) 1.05 (.190) 1.07 (.201) 1.10 (.215)
Middle .674 (.169) .635 (.179) .681 (.200) .841 (.139) .872 (.150) .942 (.177)
Richer .538 (.126)*** .522 (.142)*** .578 (.184)* .832 (.145) .835 (.153) .922 (.190)
Richest .429 (.097)*** .434 (.113)*** .489 (.152)** .871 (.156) .904 (.142) 1.01 (.233)
Education
No Education 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Primary Education 1.17 (.275) 1.21 (.287) 1.23 (.309) .895 (.139) .880 (.142) .869 (.144)
Secondary/Higher       
education 1.13 (.216) 1.26 (.242) 1.25 (.250) .778 (.107)* .761 (.107)** .759 (.114)*
Marital Status
Never married   1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
Currently married   - .841 (.156)   - 1.18 (.161)
Formerly married   - .562 (.184)*   - .972 (.203)
Age   - 1.01 (.006)   - .992 (.006)
Religious affiliation
Christians   1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
Muslims   1.49 (.321)* 1.53 (.321)**   1.01 (.171) 1.01 (.172)
Traditionalists   .687 (.215) .664 (.210)   1.42 (.460) 1.41 (.463)
No religion   .834 (.269) .860 (.280)   .872 (.275) .869 (.272)
Ethnicity
Akans   1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
Ga Dangbe   1.26 (.374) 1.24 (.363)   .555 (.119)*** .550 (.117)***
Ewe   1.01 (.218) .987 (.212)   .647 (.118)** .638 (.117)***
Northern   1.23 (.222) 1.16 (.286)   .927 (.150) .791 (.160)
Other   .801 (.343) .778 (.320)   .484 (.138)*** .464 (.135)***
Rural–urban residence
Urban   1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
Rural   - 1.14 (.202)   - 1.09 (.176)
Region of residence
Southern Ghana   - 1.00   - 1.00
Northern Ghana   - 1.09 (.320)   - 1.22 (.280)
Log Pseudo-likelihood −1323.8245 −1313.0039 −1310.7385 −1927.9633 −1914.0935 −1911.1388
Model significance (Wald
Chi-sq) 23.31 (5)*** 33.51 (13)*** 41.11(18)*** 9.54 (6) 30.19 (13)*** 36.82 (18)***
Pseudo R2 .014 .021 .023 .001 .01 .01
Threshold 1 −2.52 −2.34 −2.05 −2.49 −2.62 −2.66
Threshold 2 -.567 -.373 -.074 -.158 -.267 -.298
  1. Note: ***p < .01;**p < .05;*p < .1.
  2. Odds ratios are adjusted for clustering and robust standard errors are presented in brackets. Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions are classified as ‘Northern Ghana’, while Greater Accra, Central, Western, Brong Ahafo, Volta, Eastern and Ashanti regions are grouped as ‘Southern Ghana’.