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Table 2 Types of torture reported by primary and secondary survivors

From: War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study

Type Primary survivors Secondary survivors
Beating x x
Slapping, kicking or punching x x
Blows with rifle butts, whips, straps or heavy sticks x x
Wounding x x
Maiming or breaking bones x x
Being bound or tied up as a form of immobilization x x
Arrest and detention/imprisonment x x
Stress to the senses x x
Exposure to extreme hot or cold x x
Deprivation of food and water x x
Deprivation of needed medical attention x x
Involuntary or forced labor x x
Rape x x
Psychological torture and ill-treatment x x
Psychological assault, harassment x x
Degradation (verbal abuse) x x
Death threats (against the victim, victim's family or friends) x x
Witnessing the torture of others (family, friends, other prisoners) x x
Forced porteringa x x
Forced to be a human landmine sweepa x x
Mass roundup x  
Asphixiation (“Submarino,” includes the use of water) x  
Slavery (forced domestic servitude) x  
Application of electric shock x  
Forced contact with a dead bodya x  
Forced postures   x
Nakedness as a form of degradation   x
Torture (unspecified)   x
Burning as a method for killing   x
Deliberate killings of specific individuals   x
Deliberate killing of a noncombatant   x
Death in detention or police custody   x
Death as a consequence of torture or brutality   x
Removal of the eyesa   x
Forced to be a soldier, including child soldiera   x
  1. aCodes created in addition to existing HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri codes.