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Table 3 Summary of risk factors for depression, PTSD, or unspecified anxiety from univariate and multivariate analysis of studies included in the reviewa,b

From: Long-term mental health of war-refugees: a systematic literature review

  Depression PTSD Unspecified anxiety
Factor Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
Demographics       
 older age + (4/11; 36 %) + (2/9; 22 %) + (5/8; 63 %) + (2/6; 33 %) + (2/5; 40 %) + (1/5; 20 %)
 female gender + (3/9; 33 %) + (4/9; 44 %) + (1/6; 17 %)/–(1/6; 17 %) + (2/6; 33 %)/–(1/6; 17 %) + (2/7; 29 %) + (5/7; 71 %)
 lower education + (3/5; 60 %) + (1/7; 14 %) + (3/4; 75 %) + (1/4; 25 %) 0 (0/1; 0 %) 0 (0/3; 0 %)
War context       
 number of war traumatic events + (7/9; 78 %) + (9/12; 73 %) + (9/10; 90 %) + (9/9; 100 %) + (5/5; 100 %) + (8/9; 89 %)
 combat experience + (1/3; 33 %) + (1/3; 33 %)/–(1/3; 33 %) NA NA NA NA
Post–migratin context       
 longer duration in exile – (2/10; 20 %) + (2/7; 29 %) 0 (0/7; 0 %) 0 (0/4; 0 %) – (1/3; 33 %) + (2/3; 67 %)
 post-migration stress + (3/4; 75 %) + (3/3; 100 %) + (3/3; 100 %) + (3/4; 75 %) + (1/1; 100 %) + (3/3; 100 %)
 unemploymet + (5/6; 83 %) + (5/6; 83 %) + (2/4; 50 %) 0 (0/3; 0 %) + (1/2; 50 %) + (2/3; 67 %)
 low income + (3/4; 75 %) + (3/4; 75 %) NA NA NA NA
 poor host language proficiency + (3/4; 75 %) + (3/5; 60 %) NA NA NA NA
 lack of social support + (2/2; 100 %) + (3/3; 100 %) NA NA NA NA
 unmarrid + (2/4; 50 %) + (2/4; 50 %) + (1/3; 33 %) 0 (0/4; 0 %) + (1/1; 100 %) 0 (0/3; 0 %)
  1. a‘+’ and ‘– ‘signs indicate whether a factor was positively or negatively associated with a disorder, whilst ‘0’ indicates the factor had no effect of either type; NA indicates the factor was not studied in three or more studies. Each of the risk factors shown was examined in three or more studies at least for one of the three review outcomes
  2. bnumber of studies with +/− /0 association/ out of total number of studies that tested a factor