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Table 3 Sex slavery terminology as defined by the studies in this review

From: Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review

Author Sex slavery [page number]
Amowitz [20] sex slavery- no definition [pg 518] sexual violence- acts including rape and other forms of sexual assault, such as molestation, sexual slavery, being forced to undress or being stripped of clothing, forced marriage, and insertion of foreign objects into the genital openings or anus, gang rape which is defined as rape by 2 or more individuals [pg 516]
Bartels [45] sexual assault- acts included genital mutilation, instrumentation with foreign objects, forced rape between victims, rape in the presence of family members, anal penetration, forced oral sex, sexual harassment, forced to undress, forced rape between victims and insertion of foreign objections into the vagina or anus [pg 2,16] sexual slavery- being held captive for the purpose of sexual violence for more than 24 h [pg 9]
Duroch [21] detention or kidnapping- act of confinement taking place before or after an attack [pg 2,5] sexual violence- predominately refers to rape but includes any act of a sexual nature which is committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive, this includes forced vaginal and anal intercourse, oral sex, penetration with foreign objects and forced undressing in public, and gang rape, which refers to sexual assault by two or more aggressors [pg 4]
Higonnet [30] sex slaves- the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised, including sexual access through rape or other forms of sexual violence, and includes most forms of forced prostitution [pg 41]
Johnson [22] sexual violence- any physical or psychological violence carried out through sexual means or by targeting sexuality and included rape and attempted rape, molestation, sexual slavery, being forced to undress or being stripped of clothing, forced marriage, and insertion of foreign objects into the genital opening or anus, forcing individuals to perform sexual acts on one another or harm one another in a sexual manner, or mutilating a person’s genitals and gang rape which was defined as rape by 2 or more individuals [pg 555] sexual servitude- individual forced to be a sexual servant or sexual slave to a government or nongovernment military or militia group at any point in their life [pg 555]
Kaya [47] sexual servitude- assault where the victim is physically molested or raped by the traffickers [pg 44], listed as a form of trafficking [pg 9,14]
Kinyanda [23] abduction with sex- no definition [pg 4]
Kippenberg [31] sexual slavery- including enforced prostitution and forced pregnancy, the victim is detained for an extended period [pg 17, 29]
Nelson [46] sexual violence- any unwanted physical contact of a sexual nature, including gang rape, which was defined as sexual violence committed by two or more assailants [pg 214] sexual slavery- being held captive for the purpose of sexual violence for >24 h [pg 214–215]
Okello [25] war abduction- any child who had been forcefully taken away by armed forces [pg 226] sexual torture- no definition [pg 227]