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Table 6 2SLS estimations. Baseline model with regional effects, eq. (3)

From: Illicit financial flows and the provision of child and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries

Independent variables Dependent variable
Family planning
(1)
Antenatal care
(2)
DTP3
(3)
Measles
(4)
Tuberculosis
(5)
Sanitation
(6)
ln Beds
(7)
ln Physic
(8)
EAP·Lag (IFFT) 0.464 (0.691) −0.684 (0.178) −0.301 (0.473) − 0.476 (0.327) −1.146 (0.214) − 0.882 (0.310) − 0.047 (0.134) −0.052 (0.449)
ECA·Lag (IFFT) −1.052c (0.008) −0.181 (0.315) −0.326b (0.037) − 0.242b (0.050) 0.021 (0.949) 0.346 (0.179) 0.057c (0.002) 0.086c (0.007)
LAC Lag (IFFT) 0.451 (0.148) −0.166 (0.303) −0.285a (0.068) − 0.219 (0.169) −0.074 (0.743) − 0.032 (0.884) −0.022a (0.052) 0.033 (1.16)
MENA Lag (IFFT) −0.606c (0.001) 0.038 (0.670) 0.162a (0.067) 0.024 (0.771) 0.300 (0.138) −0.382a (0.094) −0.010 (0.046) − 0.015 (0.517)
SA Lag (IFFT) 0.842 (0.198) −2.409c (0.000) 0.343 (0.696) 0.109 (0.866) −1.392a (0.059) −2.365 (0.150) −0.102c (0.001) −0.027 (0.603)
SSA·Lag (IFF/Trade) −0.646c (0.009) 0.133 (0.595) 0.006 (0.981) −0.211 (0.337) −0.547a (0.058) −2.641c (0.000) − 0.037b (0.031) −0.130c (0.002)
ln GDPpc 7.35c (0.000) 10.69c (0.000) 10.33c (0.000) 10.38c (0.000) 6.50c (0.000) 8.72c (0.000) 0.08c (0.000) 0.35 (0.360)
RESET test (p-value) 0.16 (0.688) 1.71 (0.196) 3.06 (0.085) 3.00 (0.088) 0.07 (0.792) 12.07 (0.001) 0.14 (0.701) 9.71 (0.003)
K-P rk LM (p-value) 21.60 (0.001) 20.23 (0.003) 21.60 (0.001) 21.60 (0.001) 23.44 (0.005) 23.44 (0.005) 23.44 (0.005) 23.25 (0.313)
K-P rk F 5.30 5.16 5.30 5.30 7.04 7.04 3.88 4.14
J statistic (p-value) 6.99 (0.222) 7.11 (0.212) 5.11 (0.403) 5.55 (0.353) 10.80 (0.214) 9.50 (0.302) 12.39 (0.192) 14.18 (0.165)
# Countries 72 64 72 72 71 71 62 65
  1. Estimated coefficients and statistics p-values in brackets. a Denotes coefficient statistically significant at the 10% level, b at the 5% level, and c at the 1% level. Standard errors and covariance are consistent to various violations of conditional homoscedasticity. RESET is the regression equation specification error (heteroscedastic-robust) test designed to test for missing (excluded) regressors. It also has great power to detect non-linearities in the model. Thus, rejection of the null hypothesis could be due to either a nonlinearity or an omitted explanatory variable. If the heteroscedasticity-robust Kleinbergen-Paap rk LM statistic for underidentification test (K-P rk LM) rejects the null hypothesis, then the model is identified. The weak identification test (K-P rk F) is the robust Kleinbergen-Paap rk Wald F statistic. The null hypothesis of the robust Hansen’s J statistic is that the instruments are uncorrelated with the error term and that excluded instruments are correctly excluded from the estimated equation. The excluded instruments used in the estimations for the instrumented variables are as follows (lagged values of variables (lag) refer to averages of variables for the period 2002–2007):
  2. - Columns (1), (2), (3) and (4): Instrumented: Interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFFT), ln GDPpc. Excluded instruments: Regional dummies, and interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFF/Population)
  3. - Columns (5) and (6): Instrumented: Interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFFT), ln GDPpc. Excluded instruments: Regional dummies, and interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFF/Population), CPI, Births attended, Urban
  4. - Column (7): Instrumented: Interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFFT), ln GDPpc. Excluded instruments: Regional dummies, and interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFF/Population), Births attended, lag (Urban), lag (ln GDPpc), Labour force participation rate, female
  5. - Column (8): Instrumented: Interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFFT), ln GDPpc. Excluded instruments: Regional dummies, and interaction terms between the six regional dummies and lag (IFF/Population), Births attended, Dependency, lag (ln GDPpc), Density