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Table 2 Individual and contextual factors associated with FGM/C intention for daughter in the future

From: Female genital mutilation/cutting in Sierra Leone: are educated women intending to circumcise their daughters?

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Empty Model OR [95% Crl] OR [95% Crl] aOR [95% Crl]
Fixed-effects
Individual level
Education
 No Education    3.9*** [2.1–7.0]    4.3*** [2.4–8.0]
 Primary    2.9*** [1.6–5.3]    3.3*** [1.8–6.2]
 Secondary    2.0** [1.1–3.3]    2.2** [1.2–3.8]
 Higher    1 [1]    1 [1]
Age
 15–19    1.9* [1.1–3.3]    1.8* [1.1–3.2]
 20–24    2.4*** [1.6–3.6]    2.3*** [1.5–3.4]
 25–29    2.2*** [1.5–3.3]    2.2*** [1.5–3.2]
 30–34    1.9** [1.3–2.8]    1.8** [1.3–2.7]
 35–39    1.6** [1.1–2.4]    1.6* [1.1–2.3]
 40–44    1.7* [1.1–2.6]    1.6* [1.1–2.5]
 45–49    1 [1]    1 [1]
Wealth
 Poorest    3.3*** [2.3–4.7]    2.1** [1.3–3.2]
 Poorer    2.3*** [1.6–3.2]    1.4 [0.9–2.2]
 Middle    2.6*** [1.9–3.6]    1.7** [1.1–2.5]
 Richer    1.9*** [1.4–2.6]    1.5* [1.1–2.0]
 Richest    1 [1]    1 [1]
Religion
 Christianity    0.9 [0.2–4.4]    1.0 [0.2–4.7]
 Islam    2.8 [0.6–12.7]    2.9 [0.6–13.7]
 Other    1 [1]    1 [1]
Healthcare decision         
 Alone    1.7 [0.6–4.9]     
 With partner    1.6 [0.6–4.6]    1.7 [0.6–5.3]
 Partner    1.9 [0.7–5.5]    1.7 [0.6–4.8]
 Other    1 [1]    1 [1]
Number of daughters
 0    0.97 [0.51–1.86]    0.99 [0.52–1.91]
 1    1.25 [0.67–2.33]    1.27 [0.68–2.37]
 2    1.80 [0.95–3.40]    1.82 [0.67–2.37]
 3    1.59 [0.79–3.17]    1.62 [0.81–3.26]
 4 or more         
Daughters Circumcised
 None    0.1*** [0.0–0.3]    0.1** [0.0–0.3]
 1    0.4 [0.1–1.6]    0.4 [0.1–1.7]
 2    0.4 [0.1–2.1]    0.5 [0.1–2.2]
 3 or More    1 [1]    1 [1]
Frequency of reading Newspaper
 Not at all    1.6* [1.1–2.5]    1.6 [0.9–2.5]
 Less than once a week    0.9 [0.5–1.5]    0.8 [0.5–1.5]
 At least once a week    1 [1]    1 [1]
Frequency of listening to Radio
 Not at all    0.9 [0.8–1.2]    0.9 [0.8–1.2]
 Less than once a week    1.3 [0.9–1.6]    1.3 [0.9–1.7]
 At least once a week    1 [1]    1 [1]
Frequency of watching TV
 Not at all    1.4* [1.1–1.9]    1.2 [0.9–1.7]
 Less than once a week    1.2 [0.7–1.8]    1.1 [0.72–1.7]
 At least once a week    1 [1]    1 [1]
Contextual level
Family head
 Male      1.0 [0.8–1.3] 1.0 [0.8–1.3]
 Female      1 [1] 1 [1]
Region
 Eastern      3.4*** [2.3–4.9] 2.1*** [1.4–3.1]
 Northern      4.3*** [2.3–6.2] 2.2*** [1.5–3.2]
 Southern      3.1*** [2.1–4.5] 2.1*** [1.4–3.1]
 Western      1 [1] 1 [1]
Residence
 Rural      0.4*** [0.3–0.6] 0.8 [0.6–1.1]
 Urban      1 [1] 1 [1]
Random-effects
Contextual level
 Variance (95% CrI) 1.4 [1.11–1.7] 0.6 [0.4–0.7] 0.7 [0.5–0.9] 0.51 [0.3–0.7]
 VPC %(95% Crl) 33.4 [25.4–39.8] 20.7 [13.2–25.9] 23.5 [15.4–28.3] 19.4 [9.1–27.7]
 MOR (95% CrI) 3.1 [2.7–3.4] 2.0 [1.8–2.3] 2.2 [2.0–2.5] 2.0 [1.7–2.2]
 Explained variation (%) 1 [1] 60.4 [55.4–64.0] 49.6 [46.4–55.0] 63.3 [57.8–71.2]
Sample Size
 Contextual level   435 435   435   435  
 Individual level   6543 6543   6543   6543  
  1. aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, OR Odds Ratio, CrI Credible Interval, VPC Variance Partition Coefficient;
  2. MOR Median Odds Ratio; 1 = reference; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001]
  3. Source 2013 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey