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Health and human rights of marginalized populations

This section considers studies regarding the health and human rights of members of marginalized populations, including sexual and gender minorities, children, migrants, ethnic minorities, refugees, displaced people, commercial sex workers, injection drug users, and other marginalized populations.

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  1. Although the extent of legal inequities experienced by sexual and gender minorities (SGM) has declined during recent decades, this population still enjoys fewer legal protections and benefits than the non-gend...

    Authors: Monica Malta, Reynaldo Cardoso, Luiz Montenegro, Jaqueline Gomes de Jesus, Michele Seixas, Bruna Benevides, Maria das Dores Silva, Sara LeGrand and Kathryn Whetten

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Violence against women has particular importance for women’s health and wellbeing in the Arab world, where women face persistent barriers to social, political and economic equality. This review aims to summari...

    Authors: Tatiana Elghossain, Sarah Bott, Chaza Akik and Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:29

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The aim of this study is threefold: (i) to establish the psychometric properties and gender invariance of ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI), which was used for the first time in the present study in the ...

    Authors: Maria Gottvall, Marjan Vaez and Fredrik Saboonchi

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional harmful practice that has been prevalent in Egypt for many years. The medicalization of FGM/C has been increasing significantly in Egypt making it the...

    Authors: Omaima El-Gibaly, Mirette Aziz and Salma Abou Hussein

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:26

    Content type: Research article

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  5. While the determinants and impacts of child marriage among girls have been well documented, little research exists on the practice among boys. This paper explores the sociodemographic profile of men who marrie...

    Authors: Christina Misunas, Colleen Murray Gastón and Claudia Cappa

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:25

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Refugees have significant unmet health needs. Delivering services to refugees continues to be problematic in the Australian healthcare system. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of the literature explo...

    Authors: Michael Au, Athire Debbie Anandakumar, Robyn Preston, Robin A. Ray and Meg Davis

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:22

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Children separated from their caregivers in humanitarian emergencies are vulnerable to multiple risks. However, no field-tested methods exist to capture ongoing changes in the frequency and nature of separatio...

    Authors: Matthew MacFarlane, Beth L. Rubenstein, Terry Saw, Daniel Mekonnen, Craig Spencer and Lindsay Stark

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in our society. They are at risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes, much of this attributed to traumatic events prior to migration and the additional ri...

    Authors: Alison Dowling, Joanne Enticott, Marina Kunin and Grant Russell

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. In 1948 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drawn up. The content of this document was further reflected two treaties, the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Covenant on Economic, Social...

    Authors: Priscila Neves-Silva, Giselle Isabele Martins and Léo Heller

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:14

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in Bolivia that disproportionately affects people with little social and political capital. Although the treatment is provided free of charge by the Bolivi...

    Authors: Daniel Eid, Miguel San Sebastian, Anna-Karin Hurtig and Isabel Goicolea

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:12

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In Cote D’Ivoire, there has been limited coverage of evidence-based sexual health services specifically supporting men who have sex with men (MSM). To date, there has been limited study of the determinants of ...

    Authors: Mark B. Ulanja, Carrie Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Shauna Stahlman, Daouda Diouf, Abo Kouamé, Rebecca Ezouatchi, Amara Bamba, Fatou Drame, Ben Liestman and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:11

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Among all newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany in 2015, 16% originated from sub-Saharan Africa. Twelve percent of these infections were contracted within Germany and migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (misSA) ar...

    Authors: Johanna Müllerschön, Carmen Koschollek, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Anna Kuehne, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn and Viviane Bremer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:10

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Female sex workers, MSM, and transgender women—collectively referred to as key populations (KPs)—are disproportionately affected by gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV, yet little is known about the violence t...

    Authors: Emily Evens, Michele Lanham, Karin Santi, Juana Cooke, Kathleen Ridgeway, Giuliana Morales, Caleb Parker, Claire Brennan, Marjan de Bruin, Pavel Chladni Desrosiers, Xenia Diaz, Marta Drago, Roger McLean, Modesto Mendizabal, Dirk Davis, Rebecca B. Hershow…

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:9

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Stigma in health services may be detrimental to health seeking attitudes and practices. This study investigates non-disclosure of sex work to health care providers among female sex workers (FSW) in Brazil and ...

    Authors: Inês Dourado, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Laio Magno, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Júnior and Celia Landmann Szwarcwald

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:8

    Content type: Research article

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  15. There have been several barriers in effectively engaging men who have sex with men for STI/HIV prevention and treatment programming in Nigeria including social stigma, policies, and laws criminalizing same-sex...

    Authors: Susanne Strömdahl, Abimbola Onigbanjo Williams, Bede Eziefule, Godwin Emmanuel, Stella Iwuagwu, Oliver Anene, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Chris Beyrer and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:7

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In 1988, Brazil established a constitutional right to health and universal access to health care for all Brazilians through the creation of the Unified Health System (SUS). As part of its efforts to fulfill th...

    Authors: Mariana V. Gattegno, Maria A. F. Vertamatti, Robert A. Bednarczyk and Dabney P. Evans

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:6

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The war in Syria has led to the biggest refugee crisis of our time. Unaccompanied asylum seeking adolescents (UASA) are a particularly vulnerable subgroup of refugees. This study aims to describe the weight st...

    Authors: Annika Laukamp, Luise Prüfer-Krämer, Florian Fischer and Alexander Krämer

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:5

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In recent decades, many workers from rural areas in China migrated to urban cities in search of a better livelihood. Due to the household registration policy and other financial barriers, more than 40 million ...

    Authors: Daisheng Tang, Weng I. Choi, Liyuan Deng, Ying Bian and Hao Hu

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:4

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh not only contributes to the nation’s economic development, but has created income opportunities for women, benefiting their whole family. However, these benefits c...

    Authors: Sadika Akhter, Shannon Rutherford and Cordia Chu

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:2

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Violence against women is a major human rights and public health issue globally. The experience of violence affects women across Australia, including the large number of migrant and refugee women who permanent...

    Authors: Cathy Vaughan, Yara Jarallah, Adele Murdolo, Linda Murray, Regina Quiazon, Karen Block and Lana Zannettino

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2019 19:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. There are various harmful traditional practices and beliefs across the different parts of Ethiopia. Shilshalo, which is yet little known about, is one of these practices existing in Argoba, a community in Amhara ...

    Authors: Yohannes Mersha Belete and Negesse Kebede Atlaw

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:42

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Determinants of newborn health and survival exist across the reproductive life cycle, with many sociocultural and contextual factors influencing outcomes beyond the availability of, and access to, quality heal...

    Authors: Stephanie Gee, Josep Vargas and Angel M. Foster

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:40

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Empirically assessing the needs of refugees in camps is critical to the improvement of existing policies and programs that aim at enhancing their well-being. By neglecting the needs of refugees, interventions ...

    Authors: Idrissa Beogo, Amadou Darboe, A. Oluwafunmilade Adesanya and Bomar Mendez Rojas

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Approximately 18% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s urban population relies on shared sanitation facilities, which are shared by one or more households. While there is growing recognition of sanitation’s relationship wi...

    Authors: Tess Shiras, Oliver Cumming, Joe Brown, Bacelar Muneme, Rassul Nala and Robert Dreibelbis

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:30

    Content type: Research article

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  25. War-related injury is a major public health concern, and a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries such as Palestine. Little is known abo...

    Authors: Marwan Mosleh, Koustuv Dalal, Yousef Aljeesh and Leif Svanström

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:28

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:32

  26. Equitable access to health services is a key ingredient in reaching health for persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. So far, research on access to health services in low- and middle-income cou...

    Authors: Arne H. Eide, Karin Dyrstad, Alister Munthali, Gert Van Rooy, Stine H. Braathen, Thomas Halvorsen, Frans Persendt, Peter Mvula and Jan Ketil Rød

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:26

    Content type: Technical advance

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  27. The birth of a child is a vital event that needs to be registered but this is not always the case as an estimated 40 million births go unregistered annually. Birth registration safeguards the basic rights of c...

    Authors: Fidelia A. A. Dake and Kamil Fuseini

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:25

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In developing countries like Uganda, the human right to adequate food (RtAF) is inextricably linked to access to land for households to feed themselves directly through production or means for its procurement....

    Authors: Aziiza Nahalomo, Per Ole Iversen, Peter Milton Rukundo, Archileo Kaaya, Joyce Kikafunda, Wenche Barth Eide, Maritha Marais, Edward Wamala and Margaret Kabahenda

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:21

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Over the past two decades, employment in the informal sector has grown rapidly in all regions including low and middle-income countries. In the developing countries, between 50 and 75% of workers are employed ...

    Authors: James Akazili, Samuel Chatio, John Ele-Ojo Ataguba, Isaiah Agorinya, Edmund Wedam Kanmiki, Osman Sankoh and Abraham Oduro

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the...

    Authors: Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Dominic Makori, Allan Kamanda and Paula Braitstein

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:19

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The last decade has seen improved public awareness of disability in sub-Saharan Africa. However, negative and stereotypical views of disability still persist in many communities. We conducted a study to promot...

    Authors: Joseph K. Gona, Charles R. Newton, Sally Hartley and Karen Bunning

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:18

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best i...

    Authors: Monica Olafsen, Archangel Byaruhanga Rukooko, Per Ole Iversen and Bård A. Andreassen

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determi...

    Authors: George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie and Francis Obare

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:15

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children’s Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver ...

    Authors: Ernest Darkwah, Marguerite Daniel and Joana Salifu Yendork

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Boli...

    Authors: Kelly E Jensen, Nehal N. Naik, Christina O’Neal, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Amy R. Riley-Powell, Gwenyth O. Lee, Stella M. Hartinger, Daniel G. Bausch and Valerie A. Paz-Soldan

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections ...

    Authors: Shira M. Goldenberg, Teresita Rocha Jiménez, Kimberly C. Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda and Jay G. Silverman

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:9

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researc...

    Authors: Padam Simkhada, Edwin van Teijlingen, Manju Gurung and Sharada P. Wasti

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:4

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health fa...

    Authors: Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J. S. M. Krumeich and Onno C. P. van Schayck

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:3

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Albinism is an inherited condition with a relatively high prevalence in populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. People with oculocutaneous albinism have little or no pigment in their hair, skin and eyes; th...

    Authors: Anita Franklin, Patricia Lund, Caroline Bradbury-Jones and Julie Taylor

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2018 18:2

    Content type: Debate

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  40. Globally, one of the key groups considered to be at high risk of acquiring HIV are transgender women, often a marginalised group. In the Malaysian context there has been a scarcity of published research relati...

    Authors: Sima Barmania and Syed Mohamed Aljunid

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:30

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital commun...

    Authors: Jessica S. Schwind, Stephanie A. Norman, Dibesh Karmacharya, David J. Wolking, Sameer M. Dixit, Rajesh M. Rajbhandari, Sumiko R. Mekaru and John S. Brownstein

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:26

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may ha...

    Authors: Warren Dodd, Sally Humphries, Kirit Patel, Shannon Majowicz, Matthew Little and Cate Dewey

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:23

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced se...

    Authors: Emma Williams, Elizabeth Hurwitz, Immaculate Obaga, Brenda Onguti, Adovich Rivera, Tyrone Reden L. Sy, R. Lee Kirby, Jamie Noon, Deepti Tanuku, Anthony Gichangi and Eva Bazant

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:22

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by pro...

    Authors: Julika Ayla Kaplan, Jonathan Kandodo, Joseph Sclafani, Susan Raine, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Alison Norris, Abigail Norris-Turner, Elly Chemey, John Michael Beckham, Zara Khan and Reginald Chunda

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:17

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populat...

    Authors: Alex Müller

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:16

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The Thai government ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2008, and the first progress report by the State Party was issued in 2012. This study assesses ...

    Authors: Donruedee Srisuppaphon, Arnon Sriboonroj, Wachara Riewpaiboon and Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Based on an analysis of published literature, this paper provides an over-view of the challenges associated with delivering on the right to access quality health care for international migrants to industrializ...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjée, Wendy E. Short and Karine Bates

    Citation: BMC International Health and Human Rights 2017 17:10

    Content type: Debate

    Published on: